ON THIS DAY: March 14, 2019

March 14th is

International Ask A Question Day *

Learn About Butterflies Day

MOTH-er (Moth Collectors) Day

National Pi Day (3.14 etc.) *

Potato Chip Day

Science Education Day

International Day of Action for Rivers *

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MORE! Emily Murphy, Zoia Horn and Rushanara Ali, click

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WORLD FESTIVALS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

Sikhism – Nanakshahi New Year – first day of Chet

Albania – Dita e Verës të Ri
(Summer Day)

Andorra – Constitution Day

Japan and South Korea – White Day
(men respond to valentine gifts from women)

Estonia – Mother Tongue Day

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines –
National Heroes Day

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On This Day in HISTORY

44 BC – Casca and Cassius decide, on the night before the Assassination of Julius Caesar, that Mark Antony should live

1489 – Caterina Cornaro, last Queen of Cyprus, goes into exile, after being forced to abdicate, and sell to the Republic of Venice the administration of Cyprus



1493 – Christopher Columbus writes a letter describing the indigenous people he encountered as “men of great deference and kindness”

1592 – Ultimate Pi Day: the largest correspondence between calendar dates and significant digits of pi since the introduction of the Julian calendar


Lady Philippa Speke, by unknown artist, dated 1592 –
Can you find the three Pi added to the picture?

1629 – A British Royal charter is granted to the Massachusetts Bay Colony

1681 – Georg Philipp Telemann born, notable German Baroque composer

1743 – The first American town hall meeting, at Boston’s Faneuil Hall

1782 – Battle of Wuchale: Ethiopian troops of Emperor Tekle Giyorgos I defeat a force of Oromo, a pastoral people who had their own language, culture and religion, and were living in southern Ethiopia, but began moving north in the late 16th century, looking for more grazing land, and attempting to get away from slave traders

1794 – Eli Whitney patents the cotton gin

1804 – Johann Strauss I born, Austrian Romantic composer, popularized the waltz; his son, Johann Strauss II, would be known as “The Waltz King”

1815 – Josephine Lang born, German composer and pianist, primarily noted for songs and choral works



1833 – Lucy Hobbs Taylor born, women’s rights advocate, first American woman to graduate from dental school



1836 – Isabella Mayson Beeton born, author, cookery columnist and journalist, “Mrs. Beeton” known for her 1861 book Mrs Beeton’s Book of Household Management



1851 – Anna C. Maxwell born, American nurse, served as superintendent for several nursing schools; involved in nursing in both the Spanish-American War and WWI, awarded the Medaille de l’Hygiene Publique by the French government for her work in WWI, one of the first women buried at Arlington National Cemetery



1854 – Paul Ehrlich born, German biologist and immunologist, shared 1908 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his contributions to immunology

1863 – Casey Jones born, American railroad engineer

1864 – Samuel Baker discovers another source of the Nile in East Africa, naming it Lake Albert Nyanza

1868 – Emily Murphy born, Canadian jurist, author, and activist; first female magistrate in Canada, one of the ‘Famous Five’ whose Persons Case which went all the way to the Privy Council of England, and establishes Canadian women as ‘persons’ under the law



1879 – Albert Einstein born in Germany, theoretical physicist; E = mc² called “the world’s most famous equation”; 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics “for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect”



1887 – Sylvia Beach born, American ex-pat proprietor of the famous English-language bookstore in Paris, Shakespeare & Company, a gathering place for ‘Lost Generation’ Americans, like Ernest Hemingway, Man Ray, Gertrude Stein and F. Scott Fitzgerald; original publisher of James Joyce’s controversial novel Ulysses



1891 – The submarine Monarch lays telephone cable along the bottom of the English Channel to prepare for the first telephone links across the Channel

1894 – Osa Leighty Johnson born, American documentary filmmaker, author and adventurer; with her husband, Martin, studies wildlife and peoples in East and Central Africa, South Pacific Islanders and aborigines of British North Borneo, creates feature films like Among the Cannibal Isles of the South Seas, Trailing Wild African Animals. Osa’s Four Years in Paradise,and Across the World with Mr. and Mrs. Johnson; her autobiography, I Married Adventure, was the best-selling non-fiction book of 1940; after her husband’s death, her show, The Big Game Hunt, debuts in 1952, the first TV wildlife series; The Martin and Osa Johnson Safari Museum is in Chanute KS, her hometown


Osa Johnson with Wah-Wah the Gibbon

1900 – The 1900 Gold Standard Act establishes gold as the only standard for redeeming paper money, ending bimetallism (allowing silver to be exchanged for gold)

1902 – Margaret A. Hickey born, American attorney, journalist, and women’s rights activist; as a lawyer, she worked primarily in poverty law because of the Depression, and established the Margaret Hickey School for Secretaries in 1933; chaired the Women’s Advisory Committee of the War Manpower Commission (1942). She was president of the National Federation of Business and Professional Women (1944-1946), and represented the NFBPW at the UN Conference in San Francisco (1945). Served as chair of the Commission on the Status of Women in 1961



1903 – U.S. Senate ratifies the Hay-Herran Treaty to guarantee U.S. rights to build a canal at Panama, but the Colombian Senate rejects the treaty; on November 6, 1903, a deal is signed with the newly independent country of Panama

1903 – President Theodore Roosevelt establishes the first U.S. national bird sanctuary to protect pelicans and herons nesting on Pelican Island, near Sebastian FL



1913 – South Africa: a ruling by the Cape Supreme Court, that only marriages celebrated according to Christian rites and registered by the registrar of Marriages would be legal in South Africa, effectively made Indian wives concubines and Indian children bastards under South African law. The subsequent protest organized by Mohandas Gandhi was the first time that Indian women participated in a non-violent protest in South Africa

1914 – Henry Ford announces the new continuous motion method to assemble cars, which reduces the time to make a car from 12½ hours to 93 minutes

1918 – Zoia Horn, born in the Ukraine, American librarian; her family emigrated to Canada when she was 8 years old, and then to New York City, where she attended the Pratt Institue Library school and first began working in a library in 1942. She joined the American Librarian Association and state library organizations. She was a peace activist, participating in vigils protesting the Vietnam War. In 1968, she became Head of the Reference Department at Bucknell University in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania. In January 1971, she was contacted by the FBI agents seeking information on Father Philip Berrigan, noted anti-war activist, who was serving a sentence in a nearby federal prison for burning draft files. The FBI believed he was plotting with six others to blow up heating tunnels under Washington DC, and to kidnap Henry Kissinger. Boyd Douglas, a prisoner working at the Bucknell library on a work/study program, was relaying letters between Berrigan and other anti-war activists. Horn was subpoenaed by the prosecution, but refused to testify at the trail on grounds that her forced testimony would threaten intellectual and academic freedom. She served 20 days in jail, but was released after the prosecution’s case proved unreliable. Judith Krug, of the American Library Association’s Office for Intellectual Freedom, called Horn “the first librarian who spent time in jail for a value of our profession.” In 2002, she was honored with the Robert B. Downs Intellectual Freedom Award. She continued to speak out on issues of intellectual freedom, defending librarians who were dismissed or attacked for supplying “subversive materials,” and opposed the Patriot Act provisions for library surveillance, and gaining warrants for records of library patrons. Horn also campaigned against fees in public libraries because they created barriers to information access



1921 – Ada Louise Huxtable, American author and architecture critic and preservationist, won the first-ever Pulitzer Prize for Criticism, in 1970



1922 – China Zorrilla born, Uruguayan theatre, film and television actress, producer, director, and writer, a “Grande Dame” of South American theatre, who was popular on stage, screen and television in both Argentina and Uruguay. Co-founder of Teatro de la Ciudad de Montevideo, which also toured in Buenos Aires, Paris, and Madrid. They won the Spanish Critics Award for their 1961 productions of plays by Spanish authors Federico García Lorca and Lope de Vega. In the 1960s, she staged a children’s musical, Canciones para mirar, written by Argentine poet Maria Elena Walsh, in New York City. Zorilla was a correspondent for the Uruguayan newspaper El País, covering events like the Cannes Film Festival. She also directed operas by Puccini and Rossini at the Teatro Argentino de La Plata for their 1977 season. In 2008, she was invested Chevalier des Arts et des Lettres by the French Government. She lived to be 90 years old



1923 – Diane Arbus born, unique American photographer, noted for photographing marginalized people; the first American photographer whose work was displayed at the influential Venice Biennale



1923 – President Harding becomes the first U.S. President to file an income tax report

1936 – Adolf Hitler tells a crowd of 300,000 that Germany’s only judge is God and itself

1939 – Hungary occupies the Carpatho-Ukraine, and Slovakia declares its independence

1939 – The Republic of Czechoslovakia is dissolved, leading to the Nazi occupation

1943 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt became the first President to fly in an airplane while in office, in a Boeing 314 Clipper flying boat named ‘Dixie Clipper’ to attend the Casablanca Conference during WWII



1947 – The U.S. signs a 99-year lease on naval bases in the Philippines

1947 – Moscow announces 890, 532 German POWs have been held in the U.S.S.R.

1948 – New laws are proposed allowing British women married to foreigners to automatically retain their citizenship; only the status of women who choose to formally renounce their British citizenship would change

1958 – Perry Como’s “Catch A Falling Star” is certified as the first gold single

1960 – Heidi B. Hammel born, American planetary astronomer; vice president of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), which operates world-class astronomical observatories like the the National Solar Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope; she is the interdisciplinary scientist for the James Webb Space Telescope, scheduled for launch in October 2018; 2002 recipient of the Carl Sagan Medal for communication enhancing the public’s understanding of planetary science



1972 – Irom Chanu Sharmila born, Indian poet, civil rights and political activist, often called “the world’s longest hunger striker,” for her hunger strike which lasted from 2000 to 2016, to protest the civil rights violations under the Armed Forces Special Powers Act which only applies to her home state of Manipur, and gives the army the power to search properties without a warrant, and to arrest people, or to use deadly force if there is “reasonable suspicion” that a person is acting against the state. She has been arrested several times for “attempting suicide,” and nasogastric intubation forced on her for long periods while being held in custody. Amnesty International has declared her as a prisoner of conscience



1975 – Rushanara Ali born in Bangladesh, British Labour politician, Member of Parliament for Bethnal Green and Bow since 2010; worked at the Communities Directorate of the Home Office (2002-2005), where she led a work programme to mobilise local and national agencies in the aftermath of the 2001 riots; research fellow at the Institute of Public Policy Research (1999–2002); and worked on human rights issues at the Foreign Office (2000–2001); worked as parliamentary assistant to MP Oona King (1997-1999). When she went to Oxford, she was the first in her family to go to university, then worked as a research assistant for sociologist Michael Young. She also helped develop Language Line, a national telephone interpreting service available in over 100 languages



1976 – Egypt formally abrogates a 1971 Treaty Friendship and Cooperation with USSR

1977 – Heart releases their Little Queen album, featuring “Barracuda”

1979 – The Census Bureau reports 95% of all Americans are or will be married

1982 – The African National Congress (ANC) headquarters in London, England, was bombed. General Johann Coetzee, former head of the South African security police, and 7 other policemen, claimed responsibility for the attack and applied for amnesty before the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.  Coetzee testified that the South African government wanted to demoralise the ANC and display South Africa’s disapproval of the British government and their support of the liberation organization, but denied any intention to kill ANC officials, which would have strained South Africa’s diplomatic relations with Britain

1983 – OPEC agrees to cut its oil prices by 15% for the first time in its 23-year history

1989 – Imported assault weapons banned in the U.S. under Republican President George H.W. Bush

1991 – The “Birmingham Six,” imprisoned for 16 years for their alleged part in an IRA pub bombing, are set free after a British court agrees the police fabricated evidence

1991 – Bolivian interior minister Guillermo Capobianco resigns after U.S. officials accuse him of receiving money from drug traffickers

1995 – American astronaut Norman Thagard becomes the first American to enter space aboard a Russian rocket



1996 – U.S. President Bill Clinton commits $100 million for an anti-terrorism pact with Israel to track down and root out Islamic militants

1998 – The first International Day of Action for Rivers * is organized by International Rivers Network, a volunteer group founded in 1995 to link river protection advocacy groups with each other, and with the communities which depend on rivers for sustenance



2002 – Five Scottish appeals court judges uphold conviction of a Libyan intelligence agent for the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103, ruling unanimously that Abdel Basset Ali al-Megrahi is guilty of bringing down the plane over Lockerbie, Scotland

2003 – Marilee G. Adams starts Ask A Question Day * on Albert Einstein’s birthday to encourage everyone to keep asking questions



2004 – Socialists score a dramatic upset win in Spain’s general election, unseating conservatives stung by charges they’d provoked the Madrid terror bombings by supporting the U.S.-led war in Iraq

2005 – A million people protest in Beirut, Lebanon, demanding Syrian withdrawal

2008 – In Tibet, when police try to disperse a peaceful demonstration in Lhasa led by Buddhist monks, it escalates into violence, which spreads to other provinces; Chinese authorities close the region to foreign media; hundreds of police and Tibetan protesters are injured or killed; due to lack of press access, numbers vary and cannot be confirmed

2009 – National Pi Day * (math Pi = 3.14159265 etc.) started by Dan Hellerich, is recognized by the U.S. House of Representatives



2014 – The city of Paris announces it will run public transportation systems free for three days in an effort to combat air pollution; unseasonably warm temperatures had caused heavy smog and high levels of pollution

2015 – After calls by the UN Security Council for Syria to allow more aid access,
the Syrians agreed to UNICEF moving more supplies across the front lines separating President Bashar al-Assad’s forces and the rebels. While no specific numbers were released, UNICEF officials are hopeful they can deliver more food and medicine to refugee camps and other areas most devastated by the fighting


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About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 45 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband and a bewildered Border Collie.
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