ON THIS DAY: November 16, 2019

November 16th is

National Button Day *

National Fast Food Day

Have a Party with Your Bear Day

International Day for Tolerance *

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MORE! Eliška Junková, Nnamdi Azikiwe and Bonnie Greer, click

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WORLD FESTIVALS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

Australia – Sydney:
New Beginning Spring Music Festival

Brazil – São Cristóvão: Festival de Artes
de São Cristovão

Bonaire, Sint Maarten & Sint Eustatius –
Sint Esutatius/Statia Day – Flag Day

Canada – Niagara Falls: Festival of Lights

Czechia – Prague: Old Town Jewelry Festival

Egypt – Sharm El-Sheikh: International
African Arabian Festival for Chefs

Estonia – Declaration of Sovereignty Day

Hong Kong – Eco Film Festival

Ghana – Accra: DIVA Festival
(Women in Technology)

Iceland – Dagur íslenskrar tungu
Day of the Icelandic Tongue *

India – Bengaluru: DesignUp Festival

Italy – Cremona: Nougat Festival

Mexico – Mexico City: La Llorona (weeping
woman) en Xochimilco de Cuemanco

Peru – Magdalena del Mar:
Festival de Empanadas

Poland – Łódź: Explorers Festiwal

South Africa – Cape Town: Country Craft Market

Thailand – Bangkok:
Neilson Hays Bagkok Literature Festival

United Kingdom – Glastonbury:
Chilkwell Carnival

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On This Day in HISTORY

42 BC – Tiberius born, Roman general who became emperor (14 AD–37 AD)



951 – The Chu Kingdom ends when Chinese Emperor Li Jing’s Southern Tang expeditionary force of 10,000 men invades during a civil war in Chu

1491 – In La Guardia, Spain, a medieval blood libel (false accusation of ritual murder made against Jews) results in an auto-da-fé execution of several Jews and conversos  forced to confess under torture to the murder of a child, even though no corpse had ever been found, and their “testimony” was so conflicting the court had trouble depicting the events that were supposed to have taken place. This “child” was quickly made into a saint, El Santo Niño de La Guardia, and was used by the Spanish Inquisitor General  Tomás de Torquemada in the campaign against heresy and crypto-Judaism (secret adherence to Judaism while public professing another faith)

1528 – Jeanne d’Albret born, became Jeanne III, queen regnant of Navarre; a spiritual and political leader of the French Huguenots; after the Huguenot defeat in 1569, she negotiated the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye with Catherine de’ Medici, arranging a marriage between her son, Henry, and Catherine’s daughter, Marguerite; she died during preparations for the wedding in 1572, starting an unsubstantiated rumor that Catherine de’Medici had her assassinated by means of poisoned gloves



1532 – Ambush at Cajamarca: In Peru, Francisco Pizarro’s small Spanish force captures the Incan ruler Atahualpa, massacring his counselors, commanders and ceremonially-armed attendants in the great plaza of Cajamarca. Atahualpa had entered Cajamarca, where his army of almost 80,000 was encamped outside the walls, expecting to have the upper hand in negotiations with the Spanish. The effect of massed gunfire from cover, which the Incans had never encountered before, was devastating. They were quickly overwhelmed by the Spanish, who butchered all the attendants who tried to protect Atahulpa. The fleeing survivors carried the terrifying news that Atahualpa was captured and the commanders of the army were dead, causing a massive rout of the Incan army

1643 – Jean-Baptiste Chardin, aka Sir John Chardin, born, French jeweler who traveled extensively as the agent for his family’s business; his ten-volume book, The Travels of Sir John Chardin, is highly regarded as an excellent work of early Western scholarship on the Near East, especially Persia, where the shah, Abbas II, commissioned Chardin to purchase jewels on his behalf



1717 – Jean-Baptiste le Rond d’Alembert born, French mathematician, physicist and music theorist; worked with Denis Diderot on the Encyclopédie; his formula for solutions to the Wave equation is named for him

1720 – Carlo Antonio Campioni born, French-Italian composer



1793 – During the French Revolution, 90 anti-republican Catholic priests are executed by drowning at Nantes

1806 – Mary Tyler Peabody born, one of the Peabody sisters of Massachusetts; author, teacher, translator, abolitionist and suffragist; she taught young children in her school in Salem, and wrote educational works for children and parents, including The Flower People: Being an Account of the Flowers by Themselves; Illustrated with Plates, a popular storybook which introduced children to horticulture; married at age 36, she was the second wife of the education reformer and politician Horace Mann; promoted Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins’ writing and speaking career, who was the first Native American woman known to copyright and publish work in the English language


1807 – Jónas Hallgrímsson born, Icelandic poet, author, naturalist, and co-founder of the Icelandic journal, Fjölnir, first published in 1835, which advocated for the Icelandic Independence Movement (Iceland won limited home rule and a constitution from Denmark in 1874, and autonomy through the Danish-Icelandic Act of Union in 1918, and severed all ties in 1944) He is honored in Iceland on his birthday (see 1996 entry)



1822 – Missouri trader William Becknell arrives in Santa Fe, New Mexico, over a route that becomes known as the Santa Fe Trail



1827 – Charles Elliot Norton born, author, scholar, social critic, and social reformer; many contemporaries considered him “the most cultivated man in America”



1838 – The London Protocol, an agreement reached between the three Great Powers (Britain, France and Russia), establishes creation of an internally autonomous, but tributary Greek state under Ottoman suzerainty

1849 – A Russian court sentences writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky to death for anti-government activities, but his sentence is later commuted to hard labor



1852 – English astronomer John Russell Hind discovers the asteroid 22 Kalliope

1855 – David Livingstone becomes the first known European to see Victoria Falls in what is present-day Zambia-Zimbabwe



1864 – American Civil War: Union General William T. Sherman and his troops began their “March to the Sea”

1873 – W.C. Handy born, American composer called “father of the blues”

1886 – Arthur Krock born, American journalist who covered the tenures of eleven U.S. presidents; The New York Times Washington bureau chief and “In the Nation” columnist; won Pulitzer Prizes for Correspondence in 1935 and 1938, and a Special Citation in 1951

1889 – George S. Kaufman born, American playwright, whose collaborations include You Can’t Take It With YouDinner at Eight and The Man Who Came to Dinner

1895 –Paul Hindemith born, German composer, conductor and violinist



1896 – Joan Lindsay born, Australian novelist, playwright, essayist and visual artist; best known as the author of Picnic at Hanging Rock

1899 – Mary Margaret McBride born, radio interview show host and writer; dubbed “the First Lady of Radio,” her popular program lasted over 40 years; she accepted advertising only for products she was willing to endorse from personal experience, turned down all tobacco and alcohol products, and “broke the color line” during WWII by bringing black interviewees on her show


Mary Margaret McBride interviewing Eleanor Roosevelt

1900 – Eliška Junková aka Elisabeth Junek born, Czechoslovak automobile racer; considered of one the greatest women drivers in Grand Prix history; noted as one of the first drivers to walk the course before a race, noting landmarks and the best lines through corners. In 1926, she won the two-liter sports car class at the Nürburgring, in Germany, the first woman to win a Grand Prix event. When her husband was killed in a crash at the German Grand Prix in 1928, she retired from racing



1903 – Barbara McLean born, American film editor; she edited 62 films, including Mary Pickford’s early talkies, The Black Swan (1942), 12 O’Clock High (1949) and All About Eve (1950); six-time nominee for Academy Awards in editing, she won the 1944 Oscar for Best Editing for Wilson; her attitude was, “If you’re going to ask me, then listen to me,” and they did



1904 – English engineer John A. Fleming patents a thermionic valve (vacuum tube)

1904 – Nnamdi Azikiwe born, Nigerian statesman; first President of the Republic of Nigeria (1963-1966) after being the Governor General of Nigeria (1960-1963), succeeding the last British Governor General, Sir James Wilson Robertson; founding editor of the African Morning Post in 1934 and of the West African Pilot in 1937 and eventually had a controlling interest in 12 daily African-run newspapers, which he used to advance the cause of independence from colonial rule for all Africa; author of Renascent Africa



1913 – The first volume of Marcel Proust’s seven-volume  À la recherche du temps perdu (Remembrance of Things Past) is published by Grasset, but at Proust’s expense since the hand-written manuscript had been turned down by leading editors. The second volume wasn’t published until 1919, because at the onset of WWI, Grasset closed his firm to go into military service. Proust’s volumes two through seven were then published by Gallimard

1914 – The Federal Reserve Bank of the United States officially opens

1915 – Coca-Cola patents its prototype for a contoured bottle

1915 – Jean Fritz born in China to Presbyterian missionaries where she attended a British school until her family emigrated to the U.S. when she was 12; American children’s author, whose career began with short stories published in children’s magazines; her first book, Bunny Hopwell’s First Spring, was published in 1954. Many of her other books were about American history. Her autobiography, Homesick: My Own Story (1983), was a Newbery Honor Book, and won a National Book Award; in 1983, she was honored with the Laura Ingals Wilder Award for career contribution to American children’s literature; she lived to age 101



1920 – Qantas, Australia’s national airline, is founded as Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited


One of the first single-engine planes used by Qantas

1930 – Chinua Achebe born, Nigerian novelist, poet and academic; his book, Things Fall Apart, is the most widely read book in modern African literature; he won the Man Booker International Prize for his literary career in 2007; Nadine Gordimer called him “the father of modern African literature”



1933 – The U.S. and the U.S.S.R. establish diplomatic relations for the first time

1935 – Elizabeth Drew born, American author, journalist and political pundit; the Washington correspondent for The Atlantic Monthly and The New Yorker, she was also a panelist on Meet the Press, and made many appearances on The News Hour with Jim Lehrer; published 14 books, including On the Edge: The Clinton Presidency (1994) an account of his first years in office, and Richard M. Nixon (2007)



1938 – The National Button Society starts National Button Day *

1945 – UNESCO is founded, the U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

1945 – Lynn Avery Hunt born, American historian, author and academic; wrote several books on the French Revolution, including Politics, Culture, and Class in the French Revolution (1984); her 2007 work, Inventing Human Rights: A History, has been heralded as the most comprehensive analysis of the history of human rights



1948 – Bonnie Greer born in Chicago, playwright, novelist and broadcaster, who has lived in the UK since 1986, and became a British citizen in 1997; her plays include Munda Negra (1993), Dancing On Blackwater (1994), and the musical Marilyn and Ella (2005), based on Ella Fitzgerald’s exclusion by the color bar and Marilyn Monroe’s help in getting her employment at the Mocambo nightclub; her musical memoir of growing up in Chicago, Obama Music, was published in 2009



1952 – In the Peanuts comic strip, Lucy first holds a football for Charlie Brown



1954 – Andrea Barrett born, American novelist and short story writer; her story collection, Ship Fever, won the 1996 National Book Award for Fiction



1959 – The Sound of Music opens on Broadway

1964 – Valeria Bruni Tedeschi born, Italian-French screenwriter, actress and film director; her first film, It’s Easier for a Camel . . . won the 2003 Louis Delluc Prize for Best First Film; in 2013, her film, A Castle in Italy, was nominated for the Cannes Film Festival Palme d’Or



1968 – Shobha Nagi Reddy born, Indian politician from Andhra Pradesh; As a candidate of the Telugu Desam Party, she was elected to a State Assembly seat four times, the first woman to be elected to the legislature in Andhra Pradesh; she lost when she ran for a seat in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of India’s bicameral Parliament. She was killed at age 45, when the vehicle she was traveling in overturned, while she was campaigning for the 2014 state assembly elections



1969 – The U.S. Army announces that several soldiers are charged with the killing and subsequent cover-up of the My Lai massacre in Vietnam on March 16, 1968

1973 – NASA launches Skylab 3 carrying a crew of three astronauts from Cape Canaveral FL on an 84-day mission

1973 – U.S. President Nixon signs the Alaska Pipeline measure into law

1974 – Stevie Wonder’s “Boogie On Reggae Woman” is released

1981 – A vaccine for hepatitis B is approved

1985 – Colonel Oliver North was put in charge of the shipment of HAWK anti-aircraft missiles to Iran

1988 – Estonia’s parliament declares sovereignty for the Baltic republic

1988 – In the first open election in more than a decade, voters in Pakistan elect populist candidate Benazir Bhutto as Prime Minister of Pakistan



1992 – The Hoxne Hoard is discovered by Eric Lawes in Hoxne, Suffolk



1995 – UNESCO adopts a Declaration of Principles on Tolerance, now celebrated as International Day for Tolerance *



1996 – Day of the Icelandic Language * honors Icelandic poet Jónas Hallgrímsson on the anniversary of his birth (see 1807 entry)

1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court said that union members could file discrimination lawsuits against employers even when labor contracts require arbitration

2000 – Bill Clinton is the first serving U.S. president to visit Communist Vietnam

2001 – The movie Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s/Sorcerer’s Stone opens in the  UK and U.S.

2001 – U.S. Congress passes a law mandating airport screeners be federal employees

2004 – NASA’s unmanned “scramjet” X-43A reaches nearly 10 times the speed of sound above the Pacific Ocean



2010 – A judge in Uganda orders the local Rolling Stone newspaper to cease publishing names and photographs of people it claimed were homosexual after some people were attacked. Homosexual acts were illegal in Uganda and subject to very harsh punishment at the time, but more recent rulings by the Constitutional Court of Uganda have given some protections to LGBT people

2014 – In Brisbane, demonstrators for indigenous rights burned Australian flags while chanting “resist, revive, decolonize” at a protest during the G20 Summit

2017 – The CIA has “high confidence” that Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman ordered the murder of U.S.-based Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi, drawing upon evidence from a phone call between bin Salman’s brother and Khashoggi, officials first told The Washington Post. The U.S. Treasury Department sanctioned 17 Saudis “involved in” Khashoggi’s murder earlier this week, but this is furthest the U.S. has gone toward implicating Saudi Arabia for the crime, especially considering bin Salman is close with President Trump’s son-in-law and senior adviser Jared Kushner. Khashoggi was killed after entering the Saudi consulate in Istanbul on October 2. Saudi Arabia once said the murder was a predetermined rogue operation, but shifted to say it was a random killing when announcing charges against 11 alleged perpetrators earlier this week. A spokeswoman for the Saudi consulate in Washington DC declared that the CIA’s claims in its “purported assessment are false.” 

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About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 50 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband.
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