On This Day: March 29, 2017

March 29th is

Lemon Chiffon Cake Day

Manatee Appreciation Day

Niagara Falls Runs Dry Day *

Whole Grain Sampling Day *

Little Red Wagon Day *
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MORE! Frances Wisebart Jacobs, Vera Dean, and Betty Binns Fletcher, click

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WORLD FESTIVALS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

Hindu New Year – celebrating the new life of Spring

Central African Republic – Barthelemy Boganda Day
(first Prime Minister, C.A.R. as autonomous territory)

India – Andrhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh,
and Rajasthan: Gudi Pradwa (New Year festival)
Telangana: Ugadi (Telegu and Kannada New Year)

Madagascar – Martyrs’ Day

Mauritius – Ougadi/Ugadi (Hindu New Year)

Taiwan – Spring Youth Day (2nd Guangzhou Uprising)
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On This Day in HISTORY

502 – King Gundobad issues a new legal code, Lex Burgundionum, at Lyon that makes Gallo-Romans and Burgundians subject to the same laws; covers marriage, inheritance and weregild, a form of restitution for injury or death of a loved one and for theft or damage of property in early Germanic society – as Christianity spread, it was replaced by capital punishment, and almost entirely gone by the 12th century throughout the Holy Roman Empire

1461 – Edward of York defeats the army raised by Queen Margaret (of Anjou), wife of the mentally unstable Henry VI of the House of Lancaster, at the Battle of Towton, to become King Edward IV of England



1549 – Brazil’s first capital, Salvador da Bahia, is founded by Portuguese settlers under Tomé de Sousa, Brazil’s first governor-general

1561 – Santorio Sanctorio born, Italian physician; made precision medical instruments; added numeric scale to thermoscope, percursor of thermometer; first study of metabolism

1632 – Treaty of Saint-Germain is signed, returning Quebec to French control after the English seize it in 1629

1638 – Swedish Lutherans found the first white settlement in Delaware

1673 – King Charles II accepts the Test Act, excluding Roman Catholics from public functions by requiring oaths of supremacy and allegiance, and a declaration against transubstantiation from all men filling any civil or military office

1675 – King Charles II and John Flamsteed lay the foundation stone of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London



1679 – King Charles II accepts the Habeas Corpus Act of  (English) Parliament, which defines and strengthens the ancient prerogative of the writ of habeas corpus (Latin – ‘you have the body’) stopping unlawful detention; in criminal matters other than treason and felonies, it gives prisoners or third parties acting on their behalf the right to challenge their detention by demanding from the Lord Chancellor, Justices of the King’s Bench, or Barons of the Exchequer a judicial review of their imprisonment, and forbids jailors from moving prisoners to evade the writ – if they disobey, jailers face severe fines, paid to the prisoner. Though amended, the act is on the statute book to this day

1806 – U.S. Congress authorizes survey for the Cumberland Road, the first major improved highway built by the federal government, from Cumberland , Maryland, to Vandalia, Illinois, where Congressional funding runs out, a distance of 614 miles

1843 – Frances Wisebart Jacobs born, American charity organizer; in 1887, co-founder with four clergymen of Charity Organization Society in Denver CO, that becomes United Way of America, which joins with United Way International in 2009 to become United Way Worldwide, the world’s largest privately-funded nonprofit



1848 – Niagara Falls Runs Dry Day * Huge upstream ice jams stop almost all water flow over Niagara Falls (both American Falls and the Canadian Horseshoe Falls) for several hours; possible to walk out into the riverbed below the falls

1849 – Great Britain formally annexes the Punjab after defeating Sikhs in India

1852 – Ohio makes it illegal for children under 18 and women to work more than a 10-hour workday

1864 – Finding maintaining a protectorate over the Ionian Islands too expensive, Great Britain cedes them to Greece

1866 – Dr. John Pemberton creates Coca-Cola

1867 – British North America Act (the Canadian constitution) is given Royal Assent

1871 – Queen Victoria opens the Royal Albert Hall in London



1879 – Tchaikovsky’s Eugene Onegin premieres in Moscow



1900 – Charles Elton born, English Biologist who developed ‘food chain’ idea

1902 – Sir William Walton born, English composer



1903 – Vera Micheles Dean born in Russia, American political scientist, head of research for the Foreign Policy Association, an anti-Communist group that nevertheless falls under Senator McCarthy’s displeasure; under his pressure, Dean’s books, and a number of others, are removed from American libraries built overseas by the Eisenhower administration after WWII to showcase America; Vera Dean’s defense of the libraries, which are threatened with closure: “More than 35 million people in 67 countries continue to throng America’s overseas libraries as Congress debates their value. Those who have seen them in operation say they provide America’s best show-window to the world.

1906 – E. Power Biggs born in England, American organist



1907 – In the Transvaal, Gandhi’s Satyagraha (‘devotion to truth’) campaigners hold a mass protest against the Asiatic Law Amendment Act, which requires all male Asians to register and be finger-printed, and carry ‘certificates’ (passes) at all times, which must be shown to police officers on demand. It is the beginning of a seven-year struggle in which thousands of Indians, including Gandhi, are jailed, and protesters flogged or even shot for striking, refusing to register, burning their certificates, or other forms of non-violence. Ultimately, public outrage at the harsh methods the government employs, against people who are steadfastly non-violent, forces South African General Jan Smuts to negotiate a compromise with Gandhi



1908 – Henri Farman carries the first passenger in an airplane, aircraft designer Leon DelaGrange, in his bi-plane

1912 – Hanna Reitsch born, German pilot, awarded the Iron Cross First Class and the Luftwaffe Pilot/Observer Badge during WWII, devoted Nazi to the end the of her life

1923 – Betty Binns Fletcher born, American lawyer, federal judge on the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals from 1979 to 2012; one of the first women to become a partner in a major U.S law firm, second woman appointed to the Ninth Circuit bench, by President Jimmy Carter; she writes liberal opinions on employment discrimination, environmental protection and the death penalty; in 1981, she convenes the first U.S. all-woman judicial panel with Judge Dorothy Wright Nelson and Judge Judith Nelsen Keep; when Fletcher’s son is nominated for a judgeship on the Ninth Circuit, Conservative Republicans, led by Orrin Hatch (R-UT), claim a mother and son serving on the same circuit violates a 1911 federal anti-nepotism law; after several clashes, Judge Fletcher agrees to accept senior status in order clear the way for her son’s confirmation, demoting her to part time, no longer hearing death penalty cases, and only able to hear cases in her home city, Seattle – her original seat is filled by a Republican male



1951 – Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage for passing nuclear secrets to the Soviet Union

1961 – After a 4½ year trial Nelson Mandela is acquitted of treason in Pretoria

1971 – U.S. Army Lt. William L. Calley Jr. is convicted of murdering at least 22 Vietnamese civilians in the My Lai massacre (He spends 3 years under house arrest)

1971 – A Los Angeles jury recommends the death penalty for Charles Manson and 3 female followers for the 1969 Tate-La Bianca murders, later commuted to life

1973 – The last U.S. troops leave South Vietnam, ending America’s direct military involvement in the Vietnam War

1974 – Chinese farmers discover the Terracotta Army near Xi’an, 8,000 clay warrior statues buried to guard tomb of China’s 1st emperor Qin Shi Huang



1992 – Democratic presidential front-runner Bill Clinton admits to experimenting with marijuana “a time or two” while attending Oxford University, adding, “I didn’t inhale and I didn’t try it again.”

1993 – Catherine Callbeck becomes Premier of Prince Edward Island, the first woman to win a general election for a premiership of a Canadian province



2004 – The Republic of Ireland becomes the first country in the world to ban cigarette smoking in all works places, including bars and restaurants

2012 – The first Whole Grain Sampling Day * sponsored by the Whole Grains Council, a nonprofit consumer advocacy group, first proposed at the 2002 Whole Grains Summit organized by Oldways Preservation Trust, and formally launched in 2003



2016 – Little Red Wagon Day * is launched – in 2017,  Radio Flyer is celebrating its 100th anniversary; in 1917 Chicago, Italian immigrant Antonio Pasin builds his first wagon, which he calls the ‘Liberty Coaster’ in honor of the Statue of  Liberty
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Visuals

  • Lemon chiffon cake
  • Little Red Wagon Centennial
  • International flags
  • The Opening Barrage, by Graham Turner
  • Flamsteed House, Royal Observatory, by Thomas Hosmer Shepherd
  • Frances Jacobs stained glass window at the Colorado State Capitol
  • Royal Albert Hall, with Queen Victoria
  • Gandhi’s law office in South Africa, 1906
  • Judge Betty Binns Fletcher, center, on first U.S. all-woman judicial panel with Judge Dorothy Wright Nelson and Judge Judith Nelsen Keep
  • Clay warriors, part of the Terracotta Army discovered near Xi’an
  • Catherine Callbeck
  • Whole Grain samples

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About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 45 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband and a bewildered Border Collie.
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