ON THIS DAY: February 28, 2018

February 28th is

Chocolate Soufflé Day

Floral Design Day *

Tooth Fairy Day *

Spay and Neuter Day *


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MORE! Sylvia del Villard, Richard Spikes and Philip Emeagwali, click

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WORLD FESTIVALS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

Spain – Día de Andalusía

Taiwan –Peace Memorial Day

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On This Day in HISTORY

202 BC – The coronation ceremony as Liu Bang becomes Emperor Gaizu of Han ushers in four centuries of rule by the Han dynasty in China



1525 – The last Aztec emperor, Cuauhtémoc, has been overthrown by Spanish forces after smallpox devastated his city, but allowed to remain as a puppet ruler. Hernán Cortés on takes him along on his expedition to Honduras to prevent the deposed Aztec from mounting an insurrection during the expedition’s absence, but then hangs him and his few remaining retainers, supposedly for plotting to kill Cortés

1533 – Michel de Montaigne born, French essayist



1638 – Scotland’s 1638 National Covenant is signed in Greyfriars kirkyard; subscribers, known as Covenanters, swear oaths to maintain the Scottish Presbyterian religion in the form it was in 1580, and to reject all innovations introduced since that time, while also professing loyalty to the King. Escalating clashes over the form of the state religion lead to the Covenanters raising an army to resist Charles I’s religious reforms, and the defeat of Charles in the Bishops’ Wars. This crisis in turn helped set off the Wars of the Three Kingdoms: the English Civil War, the Scottish Civil War and Irish Confederate Wars

1708 – During one of the earliest slave revolts in America, seven white people are killed in Newton, Long Island; two black male slaves and an Indian slave are hanged, and a black woman is burned alive

1783 – Gabriele Rossetti born, Italian poet, revolutionary,
and scholar



1784 – John Wesley charters the Methodist Church

1797 – Mary Lyon born, American educator, founder of Wheaton Female Seminary (now Wheaton College) and Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (now Mount Holyoke College)



1820 – John Tenniel born, British satirical cartoonist for Punch, and illustrator noted for his drawings in the first editions of Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass



1827 – The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad becomes the first railroad incorporated for commercial transportation of people and freight

1849 – The first regular steamboat service to California via Cape Horn arrives in San Francisco; the SS California had left New York Harbor October 6, 1848

1854 – The Republican Party is organized in Ripon WI by about 50 slavery opponents

1859 – The Arkansas legislature requires free blacks to choose between exile and enslavement

1867 – Seventy years of relations between the Holy See and the U.S. are ended by a Congressional ban on federal funding of diplomatic envoys to the Vatican; they are not restored until January 10, 1984

1870 – The Bulgarian Exarchate (Orthodox church) is established by decree of Sultan Abdülaziz of the Ottoman Empire, with consulting the Ecumenical Patriarch

1876 – John Alden Carpenter born, American composer



1877 – Sergei Bortkevych born, Russian Romantic composer



1882 – Geraldine Farrar born, American soprano and actress; she made a sensational debut at the Berlin Hofoper as Marguerite in Charles Gounod’s Faust in 1901, and appeared in different European venues until her debut at the NY Metropolitan Opera in Romeo et Juliette in 1906; sang the title role in the first Met production of Giacomo Puccini’s Madama Butterfly, and remained at the Met until her retirement in 1922; her young women admirers were nicknamed “Gerry flappers”



1883 – Benjamin Franklin Keith opens the first vaudeville theatre in Boston MA

1885 – AT&T (American Telephone and Telegraph) is incorporated; capitalized on only $100,000, it provides long distance service for American Bell

1893 – Edward G. Acheson shows his patent for Carborundum

1894 – Ben Hecht born, American novelist, playwright, war correspondent, and newspaper crime reporter



1898 – Molly Picon born, Yiddish actor, entertained troops in Korea and Japan during World War II, renowned for somersaults and flips well into her seventies, wrote one-woman show, “Hello, Molly” (1979), and an autobiography, Molly (1980)

1901 – Linus Pauling born, American Nobel Prize-winning chemist and political activist

1909 – Stephen Spender born, English poet and critic



1911 – Thomas A. Edison, Inc. is organized

1920 – Jadwiga Piłsudska born, Polish pilot; just started studies in aircraft engineering at Warsaw Polytechnic when Germany invades Poland in 1939, so with her mother and elder sister, she flees to Lithuania and from there to the United Kingdom; after earning her pilot’s license, she serves in the WWII British women’s Air Transport Auxiliary 



1927 – Tooth Fairy Day * is started when Esther Watkins Arnold prints an 8-page playlet for children called The Tooth Fairy, which is first performed by schoolchildren the following year

1928 – Sylvia del Villard born, actress, dancer, choreographer and Afro-Puerto Rican activist; director of Afro-Puerto Rican Affairs at the Puerto Rican Institute of Culture (1981-1988)



1932 – Richard Spikes patents the automatic gear shift for automobiles



1943 – Porgy and Bess opens on Broadway, starring Todd Duncan and Anne Brown



1945 – Linda Preiss Rothschild born, American mathematician and academic; worked on polynominal factorization, partial differential equations, harmonic analysis, and the theory of several complex variables; fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences since 2005

1951 – A Senate committee issues a report that there are at least two major crime syndicates in the U.S.

1953 – At Cambridge University, scientists James D. Watson and Francis H.C. Crick discover the double-helix structure of DNA



1956 – A patent is issued to Forrester Research for a computer memory core

1958 – Natalya Estemirova born, Russian newspaper correspondent, documentary filmmaker and human rights activist; abducted and murdered in 2009

1959 – Megan McDonald born, American children’s author; noted for her series Judy Moody and The Sisters Club

1962 – The John Glenn for President Club is formed by some Las Vegas Republicans

1974 – The U.S. and Egypt re-establish diplomatic relations after a 7-year break

1983 – The final episode of “M*A*S*H” airs, the most watched TV program in history

1983 – U2 releases their album War



1984 – Michael Jackson wins seven Grammy awards for his album Thriller



1986 – Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme is assassinated in Stockholm

1990 – Philip Emeagwali, a Nigerian computer scientist, receives the 1989 Gordon Bell Prize, for an oil reservoir modeling calculation using a novel mathematical formulation and implementation



1991 – Allied forces suspend their attacks as Iraq pledges to accept all UN resolutions concerning Kuwait

1993 – U.S. ATF agents raid the Branch Davidians’ compound in Waco to arrest leader David Koresh on firearms charges; 4 agents and 4 Davidians are killed; followed by a 51-day standoff

1994 – NATO makes its first military strike when U.S. F-16 fighters shoot down four Bosnian Serb warplanes in violation of a no-fly zone over central Bosnia

1994 – Spay and Neuter Day * is created by the Doris Day Animal League to bring attention to the U.S. dog and cat overpopulation problem

1995 – Denver International Airport opens after a 16-month construction delay

1995 – Floral Design Day * is declared in Massachusetts, to honor Carl Rittner, of the Rittners School of Floral Design, a pioneer for over 60 years in floral art education, and to celebrate the art of floral design



1998 – Serbian police begin a campaign to wipe out “terrorist gangs” in the Yugoslav province of Kosovo

2002 – Sotheby’s auction house announces Peter Paul Rubens is now considered the artist who painted The Massacre of the Innocents, previously thought to be by Jan van den Hoecke



2007 – NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft makes a gravitational slingshot against Jupiter to change a planned trajectory towards Pluto

New Horizons photograph of Pluto


2013 – Benedict XVI becomes the first pope to resign since Gregory XII in 1415 and the first to resign voluntarily since Celestine V in 1294

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About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 45 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband and a bewildered Border Collie.
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