ON THIS DAY: August 17, 2018

August 17th is

Black Cat Appreciation Day *

National I Love My Feet Day *

National Non-Profit Day *

National Thrift Shop Day

Vanilla Custard Day

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MORE! Mae West, George Orwell and Herta Müller, click

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WORLD FESTIVAL AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

Belgium – Kiewit-Hasselt:
Pukkelpop Music Fest

Gabon – Fête de l’Indépendance
(National day)

India – Shahenshahi
(Parsi New Year)

Indonesia – Independence Day

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On This Day in HISTORY

1386 – Karl Topia, feudal prince of Albania, forges an alliance with the Republic of Venice, receiving coastal protection against the Ottomans in return for committing to participate in all wars of the Republic

1498 – Cesare Borgia, illegitimate son of Pope Alexander VI and Vannozza dei Cattanei, becomes the first person in history to resign the cardinalate; later that same day, King Louis XII of France names him Duke of Valentinois



1560 – The Scottish ‘Reformation’ Parliament adopts a ‘confession of faith’ based on the theology of John Calvin, effectively making the Reformed faith led by John Knox the state religion. Mary Queen of Scots, a Catholic, refuses to sign it

1585 – Colonists sent by Sir Walter Raleigh to Roanoke Island, land in the ‘New World’

1601 – Pierre de Fermat born, French mathematician, lawyer and politician; known for Fermat’s principle for light propagation and Fermat’s Last Theorem in number theory



1686 – Nicola Antonio Porpora born, Italian composer



1755 – Thomas Stothard born, English painter, designer and illustrator


Canterbury Pilgrims, by Thomas Stothard


1784 – Composer Luigi Boccherini gets a 12000 real pay raise from his employer Infante Luis Antonio, younger brother of Spanish King Charles III



1786 – Davy Crockett born, frontiersman, politician and hero of the Alamo

1790 – The U.S. capital moves from Philadelphia to New York City

1798 – Thomas Hodgkin born, British physician and pathologist, pioneer in preventive medicine; a Quaker, abolitionist, advocate for reduction of the impact of western colonization on indigenous peoples, co-founding the Aborigines Protection Society

1807 – Robert Fulton’s North River Steamboat leaves New York City for Albany NY on the Hudson River, launching the first commercial steamboat service in the world



1815 – Napoleon arrives on St Helena to begin in his exile

1834 – Peter Benoit born, Belgian composer



1837 – Charlotte Forten Grimké born, African American abolitionist, and poet, taught South Carolina freedmen; her diaries published as The Journal of Charlotte Forten



1838 – Laura de Force Gordon born, American lawyer, editor and women’s rights activist, editor and manager of the Stockton Daily Leader in 1873, instrumental in obtaining the right for women to practice law in California

1858 – Caroline Bartlett Crane born, American suffragist, educator, journalist, reformer, and Unitarian minister. In 1889 Bartlett became pastor of the First Unitarian Church of Kalamazoo, and led the church in starting the first free public kindergarten, a school of manual training and domestic science, a gymnasium for women, a day nursery, a cafeteria and the Frederick Douglass Club for the “young colored people of the city.” The church continued to expand until it outgrew its building. In 1894, the church moved into a new building, renamed “People’s Church.” She was also known for public health and sanitation reforms, inspected and wrote sanitary surveys for over 60 cities, campaigned for meat inspection ordinances, and succeeded: before 1900, Michigan had the highest standards in the nation



1859 – John Wise leaves Lafayette, Indiana in a hot air balloon, attempting to deliver a mail bag of 100 letters to New York City – He had to land after only 27 miles

1863 – Geneva Stratton-Porter born, American author as ‘Gene’ Stratton-Porter, columnist, naturalist, wildlife photographer and best-selling author during her lifetime, known for her novel A Girl of the Limberlost



1887 – Marcus Garvey born in Jamaica, journalist and orator, founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association; advocate for a ‘return to Africa’ by African-Americans



1890 – Harry Hopkins born, American social worker, close adviser and a speechwriter for Franklin Roosevelt; involved in developing the Works Progress Administration; Secretary of Commerce (1938-1940); WWII policy maker and troubleshooter on America’s Lend-Lease program that aided the European Allies



1893 – Mae West born, American performer, star of stage and screen, playwright, screenwriter, witty sex symbol; noted for amusing and bawdy double entendres, she was often in trouble with the censors; films include She Done Him Wrong, I’m No Angel and My Little Chickadee



1900 – Vivienne de Watteville born, British travel writer and adventurer; her mother died when she was 9; thereafter her father referred to her as “Murray, my son.” In 1923, Vivienne, age 24, took charge of a hunting and fauna-specimen-collecting (she handled all the taxidermy) expedition to the Congo and Uganda led by her father, after he was killed by a lion. Her first book, Out in the Blue, is a description of her experiences on safari. She spent months (1928-1929) in Kenya photographing and filming elephants, camping for 5 months in the Massai Game Preserve with porters from the 1923-1924 expedition and her Irish Setter, then 2 months on Mount Kenya collecting seeds and sketching flora; when she got a bad toothache, she pulled out the tooth herself with pliers; her second book, Speak to the Earth: Wanderings among Elephants and Mountains, was published in 1935; her last book, Seeds that the Wind may bring, is a soul-searching account of a her impulsive decision to rent a house on Port-Cros off the Côte d’Azur, after a visit with her Swiss grandmother, thinking of using it as a “rest-home for world-weary friends.” This idyll turns into a tension-fraught winter of high winds and her young Italian servant becoming passionately obsessed with her, then driven to frenzies of jealousy when her friend “Bunt” (Captain George Gerard Goschen) comes to visit. Bunt shares her love of solitude, natural beauty, music and games. In spite of her fears about losing her freedom, and saddling herself with the wrong companion for the rest of her life, she finally allows herself to fall in love with Bunt, and they become engaged. They marry in July 1930, move to Shropshire, and have two children, David and Tana (named for the River Tana in Kenya). Seeds that the Wind may bring is not published until 1965, eight years after her death from cancer. Ernest Hemingway was influenced by her two books on Africa, and originally included a quote from Speak to the Earth as an epigraph to his story “The Snows of Kilimanjaro”



1900 – Pauline A. Young born, African-American historian, teacher, librarian, and community activist. Her father died when she was a child, and her family moved from Massachusetts to Wilmington, Delaware, to live with her mother’s family. She and her siblings were raised by her mother, grandmother and her aunt, Alice Dunbar-Nelson, a writer and activist who greatly influenced Pauline. Pauline joined the NAACP at the age of 12, and remained a participating member for the rest of her life. Civil Rights activists and writers such as W.E.B. DuBois and James Weldon Johnson would stop overnight at their house while traveling because there was no hotel in the area which would allow Negro guests. She went to Howard High School, the only school for black children in the state of Delaware, where her mother and aunt both taught. Young became the only black student in her class at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education, earning a B.A. in history and English, then did some graduate work on educational tests and measurements. After two brief jobs in unrelated fields, she taught social studies and Latin at a segregated high school in Newport News, Virginia. There, she was thrown off a bus for refusing to give up her seat to a white man. She returned to Wilmington in 1928, and became a librarian, then a history and Latin Teacher, at her old high school. After receiving her graduate degree in 1935 from the Columbia University School of Library Service, she taught at the University of Southern California, then became a member of the press staff at the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. In 1942, she completed 114 hours of ground school work and 12 hours of dual flight at the black-owned Coffey School of Aeronautics in Chicago. In 1943, she went through 50 hours of pre-flight instruction for teachers at Temple University, then taught pre-fight at Howard High’s night school. Young was chair of the Delaware NAACP education committee, and a coordinator of membership drives in Delaware, and during her time in Chicago. She also served on the Wilmington Council on Youth as the representative for the Wilmington Federation of Teachers. She wrote book reviews for The Baltimore Afro-American, The Wilson Bulletin for Librarians, and The Journal of Negro History, and countless letters to the editors of newspapers, and to publishing companies advocating for better Black representation and opportunities. She was a founder of the Delaware Fellowship Commission, which fought against segregated facilities and discriminatory hiring practices, and campaigned for equal opportunity for nurses’ training. Young wrote the chapter “The Negro in Delaware: Past and Present” in the three volume Delaware: a History of the First State, which was the first published comprehensive history of Black Americans in Delaware



1903 – Joseph Pulitzer donates $1 million to Columbia University, the beginning of the Pulitzer Prizes

1904 – John Hay Whitney born, known as ‘Jock’ Whitney; publisher of the New York Herald Tribune; U.S. Ambassador to the Court of St. James; president of the NY Museum of Modern Art

1906 – Hazel Bishop born, organic chemist, creator of “kiss-proof” lipstick



1908 –Émile Cohl’s Fantasmagorie, the first animated cartoon, is shown in Paris

1919 – Georgia Gibbs born, American singer, known for jazz, rhythm and blues primarily, but also for versatility and range



1920 – Lida Moser born, American ‘New York school’ photographer and author; noted for photojournalisn and street photography; she started as an assistant in photographer Berenice Abbott’s studio in 1947; she got her first independent assignment  from Vogue in 1949, travelling across Canada, then did work for Harper’s Bazaar, Look and Esquire. Moser wrote “Camera View” articles (1974-1981) for The New York Times and articles for many photography magazines. Also published both how-to books on photography and a number of collections of her photographs. Her work fetches prices in the thousands, and is displayed at over 40 museums worldwide


Olive and William Alwyn, by Lida Moser


1925 – John Hawkes born, American avant-garde novelist; Blood Oranges

1926 – Jean Poiret born, French director, actor and screenwriter-playwright; noted for the play, La Cage Aux Folles


Jean Poiret and Michel Serrault in La Cage Aux Folles


1928 – T.J. Anderson born, American composer, conductor and orchestrator



1932 – V.S. Naipaul born in Trinidad of East Indian parents, British novelist and travel book writer; 2001 Nobel Prize in Literature

1936 – Margaret Heafield Hamilton born, American computer scientist and systems engineer, noted for her paradigm of Development Before the Fact (DBFT) for systems and software design, and for coining the term, “software engineer.” Hamilton is the founder and CEO of Hamilton Technologies (since 1986). She was Director of the Software Engineering Division of the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory, and lead developer of on-board flight software for NASA’s Apollo space program (1964-1973). Recipient of numerous awards, including the 1986 August Ada Lovelace Award, the 2003 NASA Exceptional Space Act Award, and a 2016 Presidential Medal of Freedom



1945 – Indonesian nationalists declare their independence from the Netherlands

1945 – Rachel Pollack born, American scifi, ‘magic realism’ fantasy novelist and comic book author; Unquenchable Fire won the 1989 Arthur C. Clarke Award; Godmother Night won the 1997 World Fantasy Award; has also written non-fiction books on the Kabbalah, the Tarot and the history of the Goddess; she is a transsexual who writes frequently on transgender issues

1945 – George Orwell publishes Animal Farm in the UK



1946 – Martha Coolidge born, American filmmaker, producer, editor, and screenwriter; president of the Directors Guild of America (2002-2003); began her career making award-winning documentaries; noted for Not a Pretty Picture, Valley Girl, Rambling Rose, Real Genius and the TV miniseries Introducing Dorothy Dandridge

1947 – Mohamed Abdelaziz born in Morocco, a secular Sahrawi nationalist, founding member of the Polisario Front, an independence movement in Western Sahara against Spanish colonialism. When Spain relinquished control of the area to Mauritania and Morocco in the 1975 Madrid accords, the Polisario declared the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) which led to the Western Sahara War (1975-1991); Abdelaziz was Secretary-General of the Polisario Front (1976-2016). The Organization of Africa Unity (OAU) seated Western Sahara for the first time, over Morocco’s vehement objections, in 1982. Abdelaziz became president of the SADR (1982-2016) the same year. In 1984, Morocco withdrew from the OAU



1953 – Herta Müller born in Romania of Banat Swabian heritage, German-language novelist, poet-lyricist and essayist; won the 2009 Nobel Prize in literature; noted for depicting “the landscape of the dispossessed.” After publication in 1984 of her second book, Drückender Tango (Oppressive Tango), a collection of short stories, her work was banned in Romania, and she moved to Germany



1958 – Pioneer 0, America’s first attempt at lunar orbit, is launched and fails, one of the first attempted launches beyond Earth orbit

1959 – Miles Davis album Kind of Blue debuts, best-selling Jazz album of all time



1960 – Gabon becomes independent from France

1961 – Construction of the Berlin Wall is completed by East Germany

1970 – NASA’s Venera 7 launches, which becomes the first spacecraft to successfully transmit data from the surface of another planet, Venus

1977 – Soviet icebreaker Arktika becomes the first surface ship to reach the North Pole

1978 – Double Eagle II is the first balloon to cross the Atlantic Ocean, landing in Miserey, near Paris, 137 hours after leaving Presque Isle, Maine

1982 – U.S. Senate approves an immigration bill granting permanent resident status to illegal aliens who came to the U.S. before 1977

1998 – US President Bill Clinton admits in taped testimony that he had an “improper physical relationship” with White House intern Monica Lewinsky; later that day he admits before the nation that he “misled people” about the relationship.

1998 – Russia devalues the ruble

2002 – The Charles M. Schulz Museum opens in Santa Rosa, CA



2005 – Israeli Gaza Disengagement Plan: Israeli security forces execute the first forced evacuation of Israeli settlers who had refused to accept government compensation packages and voluntarily vacate their homes prior to the August 15 2005 deadline

2008 – U.S. swimmer Michael Phelps becomes first athlete to win 8 gold medals in a single Olympic Games

2011 – Wayne Morris starts Black Cat Appreciation Day * to honor his sister and her special bond with her black cat. She died on this day at the age of 33, just two months after her beloved 20-year-old cat Sinbad had passed away. Their father hadn’t wanted a “bad luck” black cat in house, but Sinbad eventually won him over



2015 – Carolyn D. Jenkins starts National I Love My Feet Day * to raise awareness of how to prevent long-term foot problems



2017 – National Non-Profit Day * is launched by Sherita J. Herring on the anniversary of the Tariff Act of 1894, which imposes federal income taxes on corporations, but exempts nonprofit organizations and charitable institutions

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About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 45 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband and a bewildered Border Collie.
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