ON THIS DAY: September 17, 2018

September 17th is

Citizenship Day

U.S. Constitution Day *

Monte Cristo Sandwich Day *

_________________________________________

MORE! Harriet Tubman, C.P. Rogers and Lea Gottlieb, click

_________________________________________

WORLD FESTIVALS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

Angola – National Heroes’ Day

Chile – Fiestas Pátrias

Japan – Respect for the Aged Day

Spain – Melilla: Fundación de Melilla

Tonga – Birthday of  Crown Prince
Tupouto’a ‘Ulukalala

_________________________________________

On This Day in HISTORY

456 – Remistus, a Visigoth newly appointed as a Roman General under Western Roman Emperor Avitus (a Gaul), having clashed with the Roman Senate during the absence of Avitus from Italy, is captured by the Senate army and put to death. When Avitus returns, disliked for giving foreigners jobs usually filled by Romans, and the poor state of the Italian economy, is soon deposed



1394 – King Charles VI decrees all Jews are to be from expelled from France

1479 – Celio Calcagnini born, Italian humanist, scholar, scientist and astronomer; acquainted with Copernicus, and Erasmus; had a major impact on the literary and linguistic ideas of Rabelais



1577 – The Treaty of Bergerac, signed on September 14, 1577, between Henry III of France and Huguenot princes, is ratified by the Edict of Poitiers. The treaty restricts the Huguenots to practicing their faith in the suburbs of one town in each judicial district

1630 – The city of Boston, Massachusetts, is founded

1677 – Stephen Hales born, English physiologist and chemist, inventor of Forceps



1683 – Antonie van Leeuwenhoek sends a letter to the Royal Society describing ‘animalcules’ – the first known description of protozoa

1730 – Frederick von Steuben born, Prussian officer, then American major general who served as inspector general, head of training and Washington’s chief of staff; his Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States, was the standard American drill manual until the Civil War

1743 – Nicolas de Condorcet, aka Marquis de Condorcet, born, French philosopher, mathematician and early political scientist; advocate for economic liberalism, free and equal public instruction, constitutionalism, and equal rights for women and people of all races; the Condorcet method of voting tally selects the candidate who would beat each of the other candidates in a run-off election



1776 – The Presidio Real de San Francisco is founded at the tip of San Francisco’s peninsula in what was then Alta California in New Spain


The Presidio in 1843, drawing by Swedish traveler G. M. Waseurtz


1778 – First treaty between U.S government and a tribe, the Delaware Nation

1787 – Constitution Day *- The final draft of the U.S. Constitution is adopted and signed by delegates at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia



1796 – President George Washington’s Farewell Address read before U.S. Congress



1802 – Mercy Jackson born, American physician; a pioneer in U.S. women’s acceptance in the field of medicine

1819 – Marthinus Wessel Pretorius born, Boer politician and soldier; founder of the city of Pretoria in 1855; President of the Orange Free State (1860-1863) and first President of the reorganized Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (ZAR – South African Republic) from 1864 to 1871; Member of the Triumvirate (1881-1883)

1832 – About 2,000 Cape slave owners meet in Cape Town South Africa to protest new slave regulations, including the requirement that a punishment record book be kept by each slave-proprietor, to be submitted twice a year to the inspection of an official charged with the protection of the slaves, which these opponents regarded as an ‘acute torture inflicted upon the slave-holders’

1849 – Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery with her brothers, but they insist on returning because of their families; Tubman soon escapes again, this time on her own. She would become an ‘Underground Railroad conductor’ and make 19 trips back to the South to lead over 300 slaves to freedom



1854 – David Dunbar Buick born in Scotland, American businessman, founder of the Buick Motor Company

1859 – Joshua A. Norton declares himself “Norton I, Emperor of the United States” in San Francisco, where he is tolerantly regarded as a harmless eccentric, and “money” issued in his name is accepted at establishments where he is known

1862 – American Civil War: George B. McClellan’s Union troops halt the northward drive of Robert E. Lee’s Confederate Army in the single-day Battle of Antietam, the bloodiest day in American military history, with 23,100 dead and wounded

1866 – Mary Burnett Talbert born, African-American orator, suffragist and reformer; worked to develop black women leaders and women’s clubs, early advocate of women of all colors working together for women’s rights



1867 – Vera Popova born, one of the first Russian female chemists; first Russian woman author of a chemistry textbook, and first to die in a laboratory explosion in 1896, while attempting to synthesize methylidynephosphane, which is not successfully synthesized until 1961 (prone to spontaneous combustion at room temperature)

1872 – Phillip W. Pratt patents a type of sprinkler system

1883 – William Carlos Williams born, American poet, short story writer, and essayist



1900 – Lena Frances Edwards born, African American physician; after graduating from Howard University Medical School in 1924, she married fellow medical school graduate Keith Madison, and they moved to Jersey City NJ, where she became speaker on public health and advocate for natural childbirth serving the European immigrant community, until joining the staff of Margaret Hague Hospital in 1931, but  her race and gender prevented her from being admitted to residency in obstetrics and gynecology until 1945. In 1954, she returned to Howard University Medical School to teach obstetrics, and became the medical adviser to the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, and chair of the Maternal Welfare Committee of the Washington DC Urban League. Edwards helped found Our Lady of Guadeloupe Maternity Clinic in Hereford Texas in 1960 to serve Mexican migrant worker families. After a heart attack in 1965, she returned to Washington, where she worked for federal agencies until she retired in 1970



1900 – Martha Ostenso born, Norwegian American novelist and screenwriter; her family immigrated from Norway to Canada, then moved to the American Midwest; Ostenso briefly attended the University of Manitoba, then left for New York City. She worked for a time as a social worker, but was involved in literary circles, and her first and best known novel, Wild Geese, was published in 1925, and became a best-seller. In 1931, she became an American citizen. She wrote numerous short stories, moved to Hollywood to write screenplays, and in all published 15 novels

1901 – Francis Chichester born, English pilot and sailor, first person to sail single-handed around the world by the clipper route, and the fastest circumnavigator, in nine months and one day overall in 1966–67

1904 – Frederick Ashton born, English choreographer and director of the Royal Ballet



1907 – Elizabeth Enright born, American children’s book author and illustrator, short story writer for adults and literary critic; her book Thimble Summer won the 1939 Nebery Medal, and Gone-Away Lake was a runner-up for the 1958 Newbery Medal. She was also a multiple O. Henry Award winner for her short stories



1908 – The Wright Flyer flown by Orville Wright, with Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge as a passenger, crashes, killing Selfridge, who becomes the first airplane fatality

1910 – The exact date, who created it and at which Parisian café are all in dispute, but there’s no disputing that the diet-busting Monte Christo sandwich * is delicious!

1911 – C.P. Rogers takes off from New York on the first transcontinental airplane flight, which takes 82 hours before he lands in Pasadena CA



1916 – Mary Stewart, born Mary Florence Rainbow, British novelist and poet, pioneer in the romantic mystery genre; her Merlin series has elements of both historical and fantasy fiction



1918 – Lea Gottlieb born in Hungary, Israeli fashion designer and co-founder of the Gottex Company; she and her husband emigrated to Israel in 1949, an opened a raincoat factory near Tel Aviv with money borrowed from family and friends. After months and months of no rain in Israel, she sold her wedding ring to buy fabric, and with a borrowed sewing machine started designing and making high-fashion beachwear and bathing suits, founding Gottex in 1956 – the company’s name is a combination of Gottlieb and textile, and it became the leading exporter of fashion swimwear to the U.S.



1922 – Agostinho Neto born, Angola’s preeminent poet as well as leader of the Angolan liberation movement; first President of Angola (1975-1979)

1923 – Hank Williams born, American country western singer-songwriter and guitarist

1930 – Lalgudi Jayaraman, Indian violinist and composer



1931 – RCA Victor demonstrates the long-playing (LP) phonograph record

1939 – Frank Sinatra and the Harry James Orchestra record “All or Nothing at All”



1944 – World War II: Allied Airborne troops parachute into the Netherlands as part of Operation Market Garden, the largest use by the Allies of airborne forces yet in WWII.  Market Garden, a massive and complex operation attempting to encircle the Ruhr, heart of the German war industry, ultimately fails, prolonging the war in Europe

1947 – Tessa Jowell born, Baroness Jowell, British Labour politician and feminist; the driving force behind the right to request flexible working hours, architect of Sure Start, the early-years programme to give preschoolers a better start, and pioneered government summits about girls’ body image and the impact of the media;Lord Temporal member of the House of Lords (2015-2018); Minister for the Cabinet Office (2009-2010); Paymaster General (2007-2010); Minister for the Olympics (2005-2010); Minister for Women (2005-2006); Member of Parliament for Dulwich and West Norwood (1992-2015); After being diagnosed with brain cancer, she successfully campaigned for more funds for cancer treatments through the National Health Service. She died at age 70 in May 2018



1947 – James V. Forrestal, the last Cabinet-level U.S. Secretary of the Navy, is sworn in as the first U.S. Secretary of Defense, when the armed services are re-organized

1947 – Gail Carson Levine born, American young adult author, her first published book, Ella Enchanted, was a 1998 Newbery Honor Book; she worked for 27 years for New York state as a welfare administrator, helping people find jobs, but took a class in writing in 1987, and wrote manuscripts that were all rejected until 1996, when Ella Enchanted was accepted for publication. Her next novel, Dave at Night, was inspired by her father, who had grown up in an orphanage



1953 – Tamasin Day-Lewis born, English television chef, food critic, and author of cookbooks and food-related books

1953 – Rita Rudner born, American comedian and humor book author; co-author with her husband of the several screenplays, including the script for the film Peter’s Friends; she holds the record for the longest-running solo comedy show in Las Vegas



1954 – Joël-François Durand born, French pianist and composer



1954 – William Golding’s classic novel Lord of the Flies is published



1965 – The Smothers Brothers Show debuts on CBS



1967 – The Doors appear on The Ed Sullivan Show, performing “Light My Fire” and “People Are Strange”



1968 – Cheryl Strayed born, American novelist, essayist and memorist; noted for her  2012 memoir, Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail

1972 – M.A.S.H. premieres on CBS-TV



1976 – NASA unveils its first space shuttle, the Enterprise

1978 – Sheeri Cabral born, American database administrator and architect; a MySQL community contributor, and the first Oracle ACE Director for MySQL. Cabral was the keynote presenter for the 2009 MySQL User Conference & Expo, “How to be a Community Superhero,”  and a three-time winner of the MySQL Community Award

1978 – The Camp David Accords are signed by Israel and Egypt

1980 – After weeks of strikes at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk, Poland, the nationwide independent trade union Solidarity is established



1988 – The 1988 Summer Olympics open in Seoul, South Korea

1991 – The first version of the Linux kernel (0.01) is released to the Internet

2001 – The New York Stock Exchange reopens for trading after the September 11 attacks, the longest closure since the Great Depression

2011 – ‘Occupy Wall Street’ begins in New York City

2013 – A new report finds that 50 of the world’s top corporations produce 73% of the greenhouse gas emissions that fuel global warming. According to the Global 500 Climate Change Report, Wal-Mart and ExxonMobil are among the top 50 polluters, whose emissions have risen about 1.7% since 2009

2015 – Cuban diplomat Jose Ramon Cabañas Rodriguez presents his credentials to U.S. President Barack Obama, becoming the island’s first ambassador to the United States since 1961


_________________________________________

About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 45 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband and a bewildered Border Collie.
This entry was posted in History, Holidays, On This Day and tagged , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.