ON THIS DAY: October 24, 2018

October 24th is

Tony Bennett Day *

National Food Day *

Through-the-Lens Day *

International United Nations Day *

World Development Information Day *

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MORE! Alice Perry, Moss Hart and Gabriella Sica, click

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WORLD FESTIVALS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

Iceland – Women’s Strike Anniversary *

India – Maharishi Valmiki Jayanti
(Birthday celebrated)

Laos/Myanmar – Boun Ok Phansa,
Thadingyut (Buddhist lent ends)

Micronesia/Palau – United Nations Day

Zambia – Independence Day

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On This Day in HISTORY

51 – Domitian born, last of the Flavian dynasty; son of Vespasian and younger brother of Titus, who both preceded him as Roman Emperors; his authoritarian reign (81-96) was extremely unpopular with the Roman Senate, and it ended with his assassination



1260 – Chartres Cathedral dedication is attended by French King Louis IX, whose coat of arms was painted over the apsidal boss (a decorative protrusion of stone or wood at the central junction of the ribs of a vault); the cathedral is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site



1590 – John White, the governor of the second Roanoke Colony, returns to England after an unsuccessful search for its missing colonists

1632 – Scientist Anthony van Leeuwenhoek is born in Delft, Holland, creator of first microscope lenses powerful enough to observe single-celled animals – ‘Through-the-Lens Day’ * celebrates how this has added to human knowledge



1648 – The Peace of Westphalia, a series of treaties signed by various combinations of the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, France, Sweden, Holland, and assorted Holy Roman Empire princes and sovereigns of free imperial cities, effectively ends the European wars of religion –The Eighty Years’ War for Dutch independence from Spain, and the Thirty Years’ War amongst everybody else

1764 – Dorothea von Schlegel born, oldest daughter of Moses Mendelssohn, a leading figure of the German Enlightenment, she was a German novelist and translator. The novel Lucinde (1799), by poet Friedrich von Schlegel, created a scandal because it was viewed as an account of their affair, which began in 1797, and led her to divorce her Jewish husband (1799), and become a Protestant in order to marry von Schlegel (1804). Her novel Florentin had to be published anonymously in 1801

1788 – Sarah Josepha Hale born, American author and poet; “Mary Had a Little Lamb”

1795 – The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is divided up between Austria, Prussia and Russia



1830 – Marianne North born, English botanist, botanical artist, and world traveler


Marianne North painting a Tamil boy in Ceylon


1830 – Belva Lockwood born, attorney, first woman admitted to practice law before Supreme Court (1879), she ran for U.S. President in 1884 and 1888 as the Equal Rights Party candidate



1836 – Alonzo D. Phillips patents the phosphorous friction safety match

1838 – Annie Edson Taylor born, American schoolteacher and daredevil (see 1901 entry)

1840 – Eliza Pollock born, American archer who won two bronze medals in the 1904 Summer Olympics, and a gold medal as a member of the U.S. Olympic team

1851 – English astronomer William Lassell is first to observe the moons Umbriel and Ariel of Uranus

1861 – The first transcontinental telegraph line across the United States is completed, ending the need for the 18-month-old Pony Express – Justice Stephen Field in California sends the first message to President Lincoln in Washington DC

1868 –Alexandra David-Néel born, Belgian-French explorer, Buddhist, anarchist and author of over 30 books about Eastern religion and her travels, including Magic and Mystery in Tibet; first Western woman to enter the forbidden city of Llasa, disguised as a beggar; her writings influenced ‘beat’ writers Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg, and Alan Watts, who popularized Eastern philosophy and poetry in the West



1871 – California: After rumours spread that a local rancher had been murdered by Chinese, a mob of 500 whites and mestizos stormed Chinatown in Los Angeles, robbing and beating the Chinese residents. An estimated 17 to 20 Chinese immigrants were tortured and lynched. Ten men in the mob were arrested, eight of them convicted of manslaughter, but the convictions were overturned on appeal due to “technicalities,” including a law passed by the state legislature in 1863 that Asians could not testify in court against whites

1885 – Alice Perry born, first Irishwoman to graduate with a degree in engineering, with first class honours, in 1906; she had to return home when her father died, and served temporarily in his position as county surveyor for Galway City Council for several months, but was passed over when she applied for the permanent position; she remains the only woman to have been a County Surveyor in Ireland, so she moved to London and worked as a ‘Lady Factory Inspector’ (1908-1921); retired, became a Christian Scientist, moved to America, and wrote seven books of poetry



1891 – Brenda Ueland born, American journalist, editor, author, essayist, feminist, animal rights advocate, and teacher; noted for If You Want to Write: A Book about Art, Independence and Spirit (1938), which Carl Sandburg called “the best book ever written on how to write,” and is still in print. She was a freelance writer for a variety of magazines, from the Saturday Evening Post to Sportsman, and a staff writer for Liberty Magazine and the Minneapolis Times newspaper. From 1915 to 1917, she was an editor for Crowell Publishing, which was primarily publishing trade books and biographies at that time. Ueland also wrote scripts for radio shows, including Tell Me More, an advice call-in show, and Stories for Girl Heroes, a children’s program about notable women. She also taught creative writing classes. A collection of her work was published in 1992 under the name Strength to Your Sword Arm, featuring many of her articles and essays on topics like children, feminism, her life in Minneapolis, animals, health and well-being. Ueland said she lived her life by two rules: to tell the truth, and never do anything she didn’t want to



1894 – Bibhutibhushan Mukhopadhyay born, Indian Bengali novelist, short story writer, author of travelogues and children’s books; honored with the Ananda Puraskar award in 1958, the Rabindra Puraskar in 1972 (West Bengal’s highest literary honor), and the Sharatchandra Puraskar in 1978.  Some of his writings have been included in the Bengal academic curriculae

1896 – Marjorie Joyner born, helped develop and manage more than 200 Madam C. J. Walker beauty schools by 1919, added professional status to the occupation, worked with Eleanor Roosevelt and other leaders in civil rights struggles



1901 – Desiring to secure her later years financially and avoid the poorhouse, on her 63rd birthday, Annie Edson Taylor becomes the first person to survive a trip over  Niagara Falls in a barrel, using a custom-built barrel padded with a mattress – the barrel was tested the previous day, going over the falls with a cat inside, who survived, bloodied and spitting mad



1904 – Moss Hart born, American playwright and theatre director; You Can’t Take It With YouThe Man Who Came To Dinner; directed the first Broadway production of My Fair Lady



1911 – Orville Wright remains in the air for 9 minutes and 45 seconds in his Wright Glider at Kill Devil Hills, NC

1914 – Lakshmi Sahgal born, Indian Independence movement revolutionary, physician, officer in the Indian National Army who was dubbed “Captain Lakshmi” which was her rank when taken prisoner in Burma during WWII, and Minister of Women’s Affairs during Azah Hind (Provisional Government of Free India 1943-1946). She was in Singapore in 1942 during its surrender to the Japanese, and aided wounded prisoners of war, many of them Indian nationalists. She was recruited by Subhas Chandra Bose into the Rani of Jhansi regiment, an all-women brigade of the Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army). The INA marched with the Japanese army to Burma, but left them before the Battle of Imphal, where the Japanese suffered heavy casualties and were driven back by an allied army which included several divisions of Indian troops. Captain Lakshmi was arrested by the British, and held in Burma from May 1945 until March 1946, when she was sent to India, where the INA trials were increasing discontent and hastening the end of colonial rule. She returned to medical practice, but also became a prominent Communist politician and labour activist. During both the Partition of India (1947) and the Bangladesh Liberation War (1971), she organized aid and medical care for refugees; one of the founding members of the All India Democratic Women’s Association in 1981



1915 – Letitia Woods Brown born, pioneer in researching and teaching African-American history, completed Ph.D. at Harvard in 1966, primary consultant for the Schlesinger Library’s Black Women Oral History Project, co-authored Washington from Banneker to Douglass 1791-1870



1915 – Bob Kane born, American cartoonist who created Batman



1915 – Marghanita Laski born, English journalist and science fiction critic, radio panelist on Any Questions?, biographer, novelist and short-story writer, noted for her novels Little Boy Lost and Tory Heaven, and biographies of Jane Austen, George Eliot and Rudyard Kipling; she was also a prolific contributor to the Oxford English Dictionary, having “carded” almost 250,000 quotations. Laski was a Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament activist, and an avowed atheist



1917 – Bolshevik Red Guards begin takeover of buildings in Petrograd, Russia, at the start of the October Revolution

1917 – Marie Foster born, American Civil Rights leader who helped register many African-American voters in Selma, Alabama, and also helped start the Dallas Country;  Voters League; she personally was turned away from registering eight times before she succeeded, and then began teaching other black citizens how to pass the tests being used to bar them from registering. Only one person showed up for her first class, a 70- year-old man. She taught how to write his name. Foster was one of the main organizers of the Selma to Montgomery marches in 1965; on ‘Bloody Sunday’ she was clubbed by a state trooper across the knees, but despite her injuries, two weeks later, she walked with the others the fifty miles to Montgomery in five days



1918 – Doreen Tovey born, English author and cat lover; she wrote over a dozen books about her fictionalized life with her husband, their Siamese cats and other animals, which have sold over 150,000 copies. She was president of the RSPCA for North Somerset

1923 – Denise Levertov born, British-American poet, her anti-Vietnam war poems include themes of destruction by greed, racism, and sexism in the 1970s; her later poetry reflects her conversion to Catholicism



1926 – Harry Houdini’s last performance takes place at the Garrick Theatre in Detroit



1926 – Rafael Azcona born, Spanish novelist and screenwriter; winner of five Goya Awards, including a 1998 lifetime achievement award

1927 – Barbara Robinson born, American children’s author and poet; noted for Across from Indian Shore and The Herdmans series

1929 – Black Tuesday stock market crash on the New York Stock Exchange

1930 – Elaine Feinstein born, English poet, novelist, radio play and short story writer, biographer and translator; Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature since 1981, and recipient of the 1990 Cholmondeley Award for poetry



1931 – The George Washington Bridge, spanning the Hudson River between Manhattan and New Jersey, opens to public traffic

1931 – Sofia Gubaidulina born, Tatar-Russian composer and pianist; she composed several scores for documentary films, but in 1979, she was blacklisted for participation without approval in music festivals in the West. Noted for violin concerto Offertorium, and a T.S. Eliot tribute based on his Four Quartets



1937 – M. Rosaria Piomelli born, Italian architect, author and academic; was a project architect for I.M. Pei and Partners (1971-1974), then opened her own firm in New York City in 1974; member of the American Institute of Architects; organized Women in the Design of the Environment,  a 1974 exhibition in New York. Piomelli became the first woman dean of an architectural school in the U.S. when she was appointed as dean of the CCNY School of Architecture in 1980



1939 – Nylon stockings are sold for the first time, in Wilmington DE; and Benny Goodman’s orchestra records “Let’s Dance”



1940 – In the U.S., the 40-hour workweek went into effect under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938

1945 –United Nations Day * celebrates representatives for 50 governments meeting, at the United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco CA, to ratify the U.N. Charter, bringing the organization officially into existence



1946 – A camera on board the V-2 No. 13 rocket takes the first photograph of earth from outer space

1947 – Walt Disney testifies before the House Un-American Activities Committee, ratting out Disney employees he believes to be communists

1948 – In a speech before the Senate War Investigating Committee, Bernard Baruch coins the phrase “Cold War”

1949 – The cornerstone of the United Nations Headquarters in New York is laid

1950 – Gabriella Sica born, Italian poet and author; director of Prato pagano magazine since 1987



1950 –  Maria Teschler-Nicola born, Austrian biologist, anthropologist and ethnologist; noted for her work on a very rare genetic disorder in humans, tetrasomy 12p mosaicism; Director of the Department of Archaeological Biology and Anthropology of the Museum of Natural History of Vienna since 1998

1952 – Jane Fancher born, science fiction and fantasy author and artist who worked for Warp graphics in the 1980s., then did adaptations of C.J. Cherryh’s Morgaine series as graphic novels in collaboration with Cherryh, whom she married in 2014. Fancher is noted for her Groundties series and Dance of the Rings trilogy



1954 – President Dwight Eisenhower pledges U.S. support for South Vietnam

1957 – U.S. Air Force starts the X-20 Dyna-Soar program

1958 – Nokugcine ‘Gcina’ Mhlophe born, South African storyteller, songwriter and children’s author; she played a large role in keeping Black South African history alive and encouraging children to read



1959 – Ruth Perednik born in England, Israeli psychologist and a pioneer in the  study and treatment of the anxiety disorder Selective Mutism (SM), which causes a person who is normally capable of speech to go mute in specific situations or with specific people, which often begins in early childhood



1959 – Annette Vilhelmsen born, Danish politician and teacher; Minister for Social Affairs and Integration (2013-2014); Minister of Economic and Business Affairs (2012-2013); elected Leader of the Socialist People’s Party (2012-2014); Member of Parliament (2011-2015)

1960 – Cuba completes nationalizing all American-owned property – it began nationalizing all foreign-owned property on August 6, 1960

1962 – During the Cuban Missile Crisis, U.S. military forces go on the highest alert in the postwar era, preparing for a possible full-scale war with the Soviet Union – the U.S. blockade of Cuba officially begins

1964 – Northern Rhodesia gains independence from the U.K., and becomes the Republic of Zambia

1964 – Donna Hyer-Spencer born, American litigation attorney for New York City’s Administration for Children’s Services, and Democratic politician; member of the New York State Assembly (2007-2010); advocate for stronger penalties for child sex abusers, and successfully sponsored legislation to combat domestic violence, as well as a law to eliminate fees for Order of Protection to remove financial roadblocks for victims, and was an advocate for education and healthcare, including opposing increases in state education tuition and Education budget cuts, and increasing income eligibility for prescription drug coverage for seniors; strong advocate on environmental issues, against hydro fracking within New York City’s watershed



1970 – The election of Marxist Salvador Allende as president of Chile is upheld by the Chilean congress, in spite of blatant attempts by the administration of U.S. President Richard Nixon to derail his selection

1971 – Zephyr Teachout born, American attorney, author and Associate Professor of Law at Fordham University; on the advisory board for Let America Vote, working to end voter suppression, and was treasurer for Cynthia Nixon’s campaign for New York governor in 2018; has been a supporter of Bernie Sanders; author of Corruption in America: From Benjamin Franklin’s Snuff Box to Citizens United



1972 – World Development Information Day * is declared by the UN General Assembly

1973 – The Yom Kippur War, launched against Israel by Egypt and Syria with backing from most of the Middle Eastern Arab nations, ends on this date with an Israeli victory

1975 – The Women’s Strike *: 90% of Icelandic women take part in a national ‘Women’s Day Off’ refusing to work to protest gaps in gender equality in Iceland



1980 – The Polish government legalizes the Solidarity trade union

1985 – South Africa ‘Purple Rain’: After marchers, most of them women wearing t-shirts with the slogan “Troops Out,” reached the city centre to protest troops being permanently stationed in townships, and refused to obey an order to disperse, Capetown police used water cannons to spray purple-dyed water on them, setting off a riot

1995 – Tony Bennett Day * is declared on October 24th in New York City

1998 – Launch of Deep Space One comet/asteroid mission

2001 – U.S. House of Representatives approves legislation giving police the power to secretly search homes, tap all of any person’s telephone conversation and track people’s use of the Internet

2003 – Concorde takes its last commercial flight, landing in London, ending the era of supersonic travel



2007 – Chang’e 1, first unmanned lunar-orbiting satellite in the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program, is launched from Xichang Satellite Launch Center (Chang’e is the Chinese Moon Goddess)

2008 – Bloody Friday when many of the world’s stock exchanges experience the worst declines in their history, with drops of around 10% in most indices

2011 – Food Day * is launched by the Center for Science in the Public Interest, in partnership with a coalition of food movement leaders and organizations, on October 24 annually, to inspire Americans to improve their diets and our nation’s food policies



2014 – European Union leaders strike a deal on cutting carbon emissions by 40% by 2030, calling for a new global standard in the fight against climate change. The agreement also includes 27% targets for the amount of renewable energy by 2030, and for energy efficiency gains. European Council chair Herman Van Rompuy calls it “the world’s most ambitious, cost-effective, fair climate energy policy . . .”

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About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 45 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband and a bewildered Border Collie.
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