ON THIS DAY: December 13, 2018

December 13th is

National Cocoa Day

National Day of the Horse *

U.S. National Guard Birthday *

National Popcorn String Day *

National Violin Day

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MORE! Ana Néri, George Gershwin and Türkan Saylan, click

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WORLD FESTIVALS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

Bhutan – Dochula: Druk Wangyel Tshechu
(The Fourth King’s Victory Festival)

Malta – Jum ir-Repubblika
(Republic Day)

Santa Lucia – National Day

Sweden – Saint Lucia Day

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On This Day in HISTORY

902 – Battle of the Holme: In East Anglia, Anglo-Saxon forces led by Sigehelm are defeated by Danish Vikings under Æthelwold (a son of Æthelred of Wessex), who is killed in the battle

1294 – Saint Celestine V resigns the papacy after only five months to return to his previous life as an ascetic hermit



1363 – Jean Charlier de Gerson born, French scholar, theological author and poet; Chancellor of Université de Paris (elected in 1395); one of the first to proclaim the visions of Joan d’Arc as authentic



1545 – Catholic ecumenical Council of Trent begins

1577 – Sir Francis Drake leads five ships sailing from Plymouth, England, on his round-the-world voyage

Drake’s flagship, The Golden Hind

1636 – U.S. National Guard Birthday * – The Massachusetts Bay Colony organizes three militia regiments to defend the colony against the Pequot Indians, precursor of the National Guard

1640 – Robert Plot born, English naturalist, first Professor of Chemistry at the University of Oxford, and first Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum; author of The Natural History of Oxford-shire, and The Natural History of Staffordshire

1642 – Dutch explorer Abel Tasman reaches New Zealand

1662 – Francesco Bianchini born, Italian astronomer and philosopher; secretary of the commission for the reform of the calendar, worked on a method to calculate the astronomically correct date for Easter in a given year


Bianchini holding the eyepiece mount of an aerial telescope

1769 – Dartmouth College founded by Reverend Eleazar Wheelock, under royal charter from King George III, on land donated by Royal governor John Wentworth

1678 – The Yongzheng Emperor of the Qing dynasty born, who reigned from 1722 to 1735.  Noted as a hard-working ruler, whose goal was to create an effective government at minimal expense. Like his father, the Kangxi Emperor, he used military force to preserve the dynasty’s position. He is regarded as despotic, efficient and vigorous

1779 – Smithfield Cattle and Sheep Society holds the first Smithfield Show in London, now the leading agriculture show in the UK

1797 – Heinrich Heine born, German poet, critic and journalist



1809 – An early experimental abdominal surgical procedure is performed on Jane Todd Crawford in Kentucky, without an anesthetic

1814 – Ana Néri born, first Brazilian nurse, who volunteered for the Brazilian Army’s health corps during the Triple Alliance Paraguayan War (1864-1870), founding a nursing house which cared for over 6,000 wounded soldiers; the first Brazilian School of Nursing is named for her; she is also listed in the Brazilian Book of Fatherland Heroes



1816 – John Adamson received a patent for a dry dock

1827 – John & Peter Delmonico open their first restaurant in New York, Delmonico & Brothers Cafe at 23 William Street

Delmonico’s today

1830 – Mathilde Fibiger born, Danish feminist, and novelistshe was the first public figure in Denmark to be an advocate for women’s rights. Fibiger wrote two pamphlets:
Hvad er Emancipation? (What is Emancipation?) and Et Besøg (A Visit) which countered arguments against women’s equality. She worked as a private tutor in 1849, which was the inspiration for her novel, Clara Raphael, Tolv Breve (Clara Raphael, Twelve Letters). In spite of critical acclaim, her books were controversial but not very profitable, so she also worked as a dressmaker and translator. In 1863, she began training as a telegraph operator for the Danish State Telegraph service, which had just changed its policy, and began accepting women candidates. In 1866, she completed her training, and became the first woman employed as a telegraph operator in Denmark. After two years in Helsingør, she was transferred to Nysted in 1869 to manage a newly opened station. She encountered resistance from male operators, who saw the employment of  a woman as a threat to their livelihood. In spite of her managerial position, her pay at Nysted was scarcely sufficient to pay her expenses. The following year, she applied for a transfer to the telegraph station in Aarhus, but also had difficulties with the station manager there. Her health, never robust, suffered under the stress, and she died in Aarhus in 1872. She is remembered in Denmark as a pioneering feminist, and as the woman who opened the door for women’s employment by the Danish State Telegraph service



1838 – Pierre-Marie-Alexis Millardet born, French botanist who saved the vineyards of France from total destruction by the grape phylloxera, an insect which sucks the fluid from grapevines, by grafting the French vines on American rootstock, which was resistant to phylloxera. Also develops the first widely used plant fungicide

1871 – Emily Carr born, Canadian painter and author, inspired by the Pacific Northwest forests and the region’s indigenous peoples; one of Canada’s ‘Group of Seven’ modern painters


Vanquished, by Emily Carr (1930)

1883 –Belle da Costa Greene born, American librarian who worked at the Princeton University Library, then was hired by J.P. Morgan to catalog and oversee his private collection; first director of the Pierpont Morgan Library (1906-1948)

1885 – Annie Dale Biddle Andrews born, American mathematician; first woman to earn a Ph.D, in mathematics from the University of California, Berkeley; Constructive theory of the unicursal plane quartic by synthetic methods; she worked as a math instructor at the University of Washington (1911-1912) and the University of California (1915-1932)



1897 – Drew Pearson born, notable American newspaper columnist and radio commentator; in his syndicated column, Washington Merry-Go-Round, which criticized politicians and other public figures; sometimes prone to exaggeration and inaccuracies

1903 – Ella Jo Baker born, American Civil Rights Activist; worked for the NAACP (1940-1946), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (1957-1960); and the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC–1960-1986)



1903 – Carlos Montoya born, Spanish guitarist and composer



1908 – Plinio Corrêa de Oliveira born, Brazilian intellectual and Catholic activist, who helped organize the Catholic Electoral League, and was elected to the Brazilian Constitutional Convention by the Catholic bloc; at 24, he was the youngest congressman in Brazil’s history; author of In Defense of Catholic Action

1908 – Elizabeth Alexander born, British geologist and physicist; during WWII, correctly interpreted anomalous radar signals as caused by the sun, which led after the war to the development of radio astronomy; also did early work on the geology of Singapore



1911 – Kenneth Patchen born, American poet



1913 – The U.S. Federal Reserve System is established

1921 – Britain, France, Japan and the U.S. sign the Four Power Pacific Treaty, agreeing not to seek territorial expansion, and mutual consultation in territorial disputes

1927 – James A. Wright born, American poet; awarded the 1956 Yale Younger Poets Award, and the 1972 Pulitzer Prize for Poetry for his Collected Poems



1928 – George Gershwin’s An American in Paris premieres



1934 – Antoinette Rodez Schiesler born, African-American chemist and astronomer; Director of Research at Villanova University; former Roman Catholic nun, and Episcopal priest

1935 – Türkan Saylan born, Turkish medical doctor and dermatologist, writer, academic and social activist. Noted for her work on leprosy, and as the founder of the Fight Against Lepra Association and Foundation, and worked as the voluntary head of the Istanbul Lepra Hospital for 21 years



1937 – During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Nanking falls to the Japanese army, and over 300,000 Chinese civilians are slaughtered, injured or raped

1942 – Anna Georges Eshoo born, American Democratic politician; the only Assyrian American in the U.S. Congress, and one of two congresswomen of Armenian descent; she has served in the U.S. House of Representatives from two different California districts since 1993



1949 – R.A. MacAvoy born, American fantasy and scifi author; noted for Tea with the Black Dragon, The Book of Kells, and her Damiano and Lens of the World series



1949 – The Knesset votes to move the capital of Israel to Jerusalem

1950 – Linda Bellos born, British Labour politician, radical feminist, lesbian, and the first non-white lesbian to join the Spare Rib feminist collective in 1981; vice-chair of the successful Black Sections campaign to elect African Caribbean and Asian candidates for local and parliamentary races; Bellos was elected in 1985 as a councilor to Lambeth London Borough Council, and served as council leader (1986-1988); co-chair of the LGBT Advisory Group to the Metropolitan Police (2000-2003). She advocates for an inclusive approach to women’s issues, taking into account social class, minority and majority ethnic identity, disability, sexual identity and religion



1950 – Dame Julia Slingo born, British meteorologist and climate scientist; she was the first woman professor of Meteorology in the UK, and the first woman President of the Royal Meteorological Society in 2008. Currently Chief Scientist at the Met Office (UK national weather service), since 2009; founding director of the Walker Institute for Climate System Research; awarded the Buchan Prize of the Royal Meteorological Society in 1998, and awarded the 2015 International Meteorological Organization Prize from the World Meteorological Organization; Fellow of the Royal Society since 2015



1959 – Archbishop Makarios III becomes the first President of Cyprus

1961 – Painter “Grandma Moses” passes away at the age of 101


Self-Portrait by Anna “Grandma” Moses

1961 – Irene Sáez Conde born, Venezuelan politician; Governor of Nueva Esparta (1999-2000); Mayor of Chacao (a municipality of Caracas, 1993-1998); she was also the first woman to run for President of Venezuela in 1998, but was defeated by Hugo Chavez



1962 – NASA launches Relay 1, first active repeater communications satellite in orbit

1964 – President Johnson and Mexican President Gustavo Diaz Ordaz end a 100-year-old border dispute by setting off an explosion diverting the Rio Grande River to reshape the border between the state of Texas and Mexico

1966 – Jimi Hendrix releases his single “Foxy Lady”

1967 – Constantine II of Greece launches unsuccessful counter-coup against the Regime of the Colonels

1970 – Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner born, Austrian mountaineer; first woman to climb the 14 eight-thousanders without the use of supplementary oxygen or high altitude porters; won the 2012 National Geographic Explorer of the Year Award



1971 – Naomi Long, Northern Irish engineer and Northern Irish Alliance Party politician; Leader of the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland since 2016; Member of the Northern Ireland Assembly for Belfast East since 2016; Member of Parliament for Belfast East (2010-2015); second woman Lord Mayor of Belfast (2009-2010); Victoria Ward Councillor on the Belfast City Council (2001-2010)



1971 – Leanne Wood born, Welsh Plaid Cymru politician; first woman Leader of Plaid Cymru (2012-2018); Leader of the Opposition in the National Assembly for Wales (2016-2017); Member of the Welsh Assembly for Rhondda since 2016; Member of the Welsh Assembly for South Wales Central (2003-2016); she identifies as a socialist, republican and a proponent of Welsh independence



1972 – Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt begin final extra-vehicular activity (EVA) or “Moonwalk” of Apollo 17, to date the last time humans to set foot on the Moon

1974 – Malta becomes a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations

1974 – Sara Cox born as Sarah Cox, English broadcaster and presenter for BBC Radio; Currently host on BBC Radio 2 for Back in Time for . . . ; presenter on The Radio 1 Breakfast Show (2000-2003)

1976 – Rama Yade born in Senegal, French moderate-conservative politician and author; Regional Advisor of Île-de-France since 2010; Ambassador of France to UNESCO (2010-2011); Secretary of State for Sports (2009-2010); Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and Human Rights (2007-2009); author of Noirs de France (Blacks in France) and Carnets du pouvoir (Diary of Power), as well as several other books on political issues. She identifies herself as a feminist



1981 – General Jaruzelski declares martial law in Poland, in response to Solidarity’s growing influence and activism

1988 – PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat gives a speech at a UN General Assembly meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, after U.S. authorities deny him a visa to visit New York

1989 – Taylor Swift born, American singer-songwriter-guitarist



1991 – North Korea and South Korea sign a non-aggression agreement

1993 – U.S. Supreme Court rules that a hearing must be held before property linked to illegal drug sales can be seized

1997 – The Getty Center in Los Angeles, CA, opens with a ribbon cutting ceremony



1998 – Puerto Rican voters reject U.S. statehood in a non-binding referendum

2002 – European Union announces that Cyprus, the Czech Republic,  Estonia,  Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia will become members in 2004

2004 – U.S. Senate Resolution 452 proclaims the first National Day of the Horse *



2010 – Foodimentary launches first National Popcorn String Day *

2014 – Lima Call for Climate Action: At the UN Climate Change talks in Lima, Peru, a plan is agreed upon which commits all participating countries to cutting their greenhouse gas emissions, hailed as a first step toward a climate change deal to be finalized in Paris in 2015. Participants are called on to reveal how they propose to cut carbon pollution by the next meeting. But Alden Meyer of the Union of Concerned Scientists said, “It’s definitely watered down from what we expected.”

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About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 50 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband.
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