ON THIS DAY: March 16, 2019

March 16th is

Black Press Day *

National Panda Day

No Selfies Day *

Saint Urho’s Day *

Freedom of Information Day *

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MORE! Caroline Herschel, Mary Hinkson and Zhu Chen, click

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WORLD FESTIVALS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

Germany – Munich: Starkbierzeit
(Bavarian strong beer festival)

Latvia – Remembrance Day for
the Latvian Legionnaires

Lithuania – Apie Knygnešys
Day of the Book Smugglers *

Netherlands – Maastricht:
European Fine Arts Fair opens

Spain – Valencia: Las Fallas
(fallas – huge papiermâché puppets)

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On This Day in HISTORY

597 BC – Jeconiah, King of Judah, is dethroned and taken into captivity when the Babylonians capture Jerusalem; King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon puts Zedkiah on the throne, who will be the last King of Judah

455 – Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III, practicing archery on the Campus Martius, is assassinated by two Scythian followers of Roman general Aëtius, in retaliation for Valentinian slaying Aëtius the previous year

1190 – At Clifford’s Tower, York, England, 150 local Jews die in a pogrom in the castle keep; most of the Jews commit suicide in order not to fall into the hands of the mob



1244 – The Siege of Montségur ends after nine-months; the Château de Montségur is held by Cathars, a Christian splinter movement regarded as heretical by the Roman Catholic Church; when the Cathars surrender to the besieging French royal forces, over 200 of them are burned in a bonfire

1478 – Hieronymus Emser born, German theologian, lecturer, editor and essayist

1521 – Ferdinand Magellan reaches the island of Homonhon in the Philippines.

1621 – Samoset, an Abenake sagamore, is the first Native American to make contact with the Pilgrims at Plymouth Colony, walking alone into the village and greeting them in English, learned from English fishermen fishing off Monhegan Island in Maine

1689 – The 23rd Regiment of Foot, or Royal Welch Fusiliers, is founded, one of the oldest regiments in the British army

1750 – Caroline Herschel born in Germany, English astronomer, the first woman to discover a comet, then goes on to discover several more; first woman awarded Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1828), and to be named an Honorary Member of the Royal Astronomical Society (1835, with Mary Somerville)


Caroline Herschel, and one of her many discoveries, Messier 110 Nebula

1751 – James Madison born, 4th U.S. president; “Father of the Bill of Rights” and advocate for government that does not hold secrets from its citizens; Freedom of Information Day * is on March 16 to honor his vision (see 1979 entry below)

1771 – Antoine-Jean Gros born, French Romantic painter


Embarquement de la Duchesse d’Angoulême à Pauillac by Antoine-Jean Gros (1819)

1787 – George Ohm born, physicist and mathematician ; Ohm’s Law, the physical unit of electrical resistance, is named the Ohn in his honor

1799 – Anna Children Atkins born, English botanist and pioneering photographer; in Photographs of British Algae: Cyanotype Impressions, she records all the specimens of algae found in the British Isles, also created Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns – they are the first sustained demonstrations that photography could be scientifically useful



1802 – President Thomas Jefferson signs into law the Military Peace Establishment Act of 1802, in which Congress authorizes funds to build a military academy at West Point NY, and establishes the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to build it

1808 – Hannah T. King born in England, Mormon pioneer and author; last woman sealed to Brigham Young, who had 55 wives; author of Songs of the Heart

1822 – Rosa Bonheur born, French painter and sculptor, the most well-known and  financially successful woman artist of her day; women were only reluctantly educated as artists, so her success helped to open doors for women artists that followed her


The Horse Fair, by Rosa Bonheur

1827 – John B. Russwurm and Reverend Samuel Cornish begin publishing Freedom’s Journal, the first Black newspaper in the U.S.

1836 – The Republic of Texas approves a constitution

1846 – Rebecca Cole born, second black American woman to become a physician; opens the Women’s Directory Center in Philadelphia with Charlotte Abbey (1873) to provide legal and medical services to poor women and children; appointed superintendent of the Association for the Relief of Destitute Colored Women and Children in Washington DC (1899); continued to practice medicine for 50 years


1870s stethoscope

1846 – Day of the Book Smugglers * – Jurgis Bielinis born, Lithuanian newspaper publisher who was one of the main organizers of book-smuggling during the Russian Empire ban (1865-1904) on all Lithuanian language publications printed in the Latin alphabet, to force Lithuanians to use the Cyrillic alphabet

1850 – The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne, is first published



1868 – Maxim Gorky born, Russian author of short stories, novels and plays



1871 – The State of Delaware enacts the first fertilizer law

1871 – Hans Merensky born, South African geologist, prospector, and conservationist, Discovered the rich deposit of alluvial diamonds at Alexander Bay in Namaqualand, vast platinum and chrome reefs at Lydenburg, Rustenburg and Potgietersrus, which led to some of the largest platinum mines in the world, phosphates and copper at  Phalaborwa in the Transvaal lowveld, gold in the Free State and the world’s biggest chrome deposit at Jagdlust near Pietersburg. Merensky allotted the larger part of his fortune to the Hans Merensky Trust to ensure that his projects in agriculture,  horticulture and forestry operations on the Westphalia Estate would be continued after his death. He also established the Hans Merensky Library at the University of Pretoria

1881 – Fannie Charles Dillon born, American pianist and composer



1882 – The Senate approves a treaty allowing the U.S. to join the Red Cross

1883 – Susan Hayhurst graduates from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, the first woman pharmacy graduate, at the age of 63. She was already the pharmaceutical department head at the Woman’s Hospital of Philadelphia, and had returned to school to further her knowledge

1883 – Ethel Anderson born in England, Australian author, poet, art critic and painter; founder of the Turramurra Wall Painters Union in New South Wales


Detail: Children’s Chapel mural,  St. James Church, Sydney – designed by Ethel Anderson
and painted by the Turramurra Wall Painters Union

1900 – Eveline M. Burns born, British-born American economist, writer and educator; Columbia Professor of Social Work; helped design the U.S. Social Security system


Franklin Roosevelt signing the Social Security Act in 1935

1909 – Cuba suffers a revolt only six weeks after the inauguration of Jose Miguel Gomez

1913 – The 15,000-ton battleship Pennsylvania is launched at Newport News VA

1915 – The Federal Trade Commission begins operation

1916 – Mercedes McCambridge born, American actress who struggled with alcoholism, and went public with her addiction in order to help others and bring public recognition to alcoholism as a disease; from 1975 to 1982, she devoted her time to the Livengrin Foundation, a treatment and rehabilitation center, first as a volunteer board member, then as President and CEO, responsible for day-to-day operations. She was a staunch liberal Democrat, and campaigned for Adlai Stevenson.  Her memoir The Quality of Mercy: An Autobiography is quite frank about her problems. She was a member of Orson Welles’ Mercury Summer Theatre of the Air company, and won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for All the King’s Men, and was nominated again in the same category for Giant


 


1918 – Tallulah Bankhead makes her New York acting debut in The Squab Farm



1925 – Mary Hinkson born, African American dancer and choreographer; member of the Martha Graham Dance Company (1953-1973); also appeared at the New York City Opera, and worked with Alvin Ailey; taught at the Juilliard School of Music, Dance Theatre of Harlem, and the Ailey School



1926 – Physicist Robert H. Goddard launches the first liquid-fuel rocket

1928 – The U.S. plans to send 1,000 more Marines to Nicaragua

1935 – Adolf Hitler orders a German rearmament in violation of the Versailles Treaty.

1939 – Germany occupies the rest of Czechoslovakia.

1943 – Ursula Goodenough born, Professor of Biology at Washington University in St. Louis where she engages in research on eukaryotic algae; author of best-selling book Sacred Depths of Nature, and presenter of programs Religious Naturalism, and Epic of Evolution in venues around the world, including a Mind and Life dialogue with the Dalai Lama in 2002



1945 – Iwo Jima declared secure by Allies, but pockets of Japanese resistance remain

1946 – Indian leaders call British Premier Attlee’s offer for India’s independence contradictory and a propaganda move

1946 – Mary Kaldor born, English economist and academic; Professor of Governance at the London School of economics; key figure in development of cosmopolitan democracy, which advocates policy decisions being made by those affected, avoiding a single hierarchical form of authority, in a kind of global governance without world government; founding member of European Nuclear Disarmament and the European Council on Foreign Relations; author of Global civil society: an answer to war



1947 – Martial law, imposed on March 1st after attacks and bombings which killed at least 20 people, ends in Tel Aviv and parts of Jerusalem

1948 – Catherine Quéré born, French Socialist politician and wine-grower; Member of Parliament for Charente-Maritime’s 3rd constituency since 2007; Vice-president and Regional Councillor of the Poitou-Charentes Regional Council (2004-2007)



1950 – Congress votes to remove federal taxes on oleomargarine

1956 – Saint Urho’s Day * is created by Richard Mattson, a Minnesotan of Finnish descent, as a tongue-in-cheek response to all the to-do about St. Patrick’s Day in the U.S. The “legend” of St. Urho has now been proclaimed in all 50 states, and there are St. Urho pubs in Finland – An alternate version claims that Dr. Sulo Havumaki, of Bemidji State College, is the true originator of the St. Urho legend. This version has Havumaki claiming that St. Urho drove a plague of grasshoppers out of Finland, saving the Finnish wine crop (adding an unlikely warmer climate to Finnish history), and becoming the Patron Saint of Finnish Vineyard Workers



1956 – Yoriko Shono born as Yoriko Ishikawa, Japanese writer; noted for her short  story collection, Nani mo Shitenai (Not Do Anything), winner of the Noma Literary Prize for New Writers, and her story “Ni Hyaku Kaiki” (roughly translated as “repeated regression”) which won the Mishima Yukio Prize



1956 – Eveline Widmer-Schlumpf born, Swiss politician; President of Switzerland (2012); Vice President of Switzerland (2011); Minister of Finance (2010-2015); Minister of Justice and Police (2008-2010); Member of the Swiss Federal Council (2008-2015)



1958 – Kate Worley, American comic book writer; noted for her work on Omaha the Cat Dancer; she was also a writer and performer for the science fiction comedy show Shockwave Radio Theater. She died of cancer in 2004



1960 – Jenny Éclair born, English comedian, novelist and actress; helped develop and worked on Grumpy Old Women (2004-2007) and was a panelist on Loose Women (2011-2012); author of The Book of Bad Behaviour (non-fiction), the novels Having a Lovely Time, and Life, Death and Vanilla Slices



1963 – Peter, Paul and Mary release “Puff the Magic Dragon”

1963 – Caltech astronomer Maartin Schmidt discovers the first known quasar, 3C273

1964 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson submits $1 billion ‘War on Poverty’ program to Congress

1967 – Lauren Graham born, American actress and author; best known for her role on the television series Gilmore Girls (2000-2007); she also published a novel, Someday, Someday, Maybe in 2013, which made the NY Times bestseller list; a memoir in 2016, Talking as Fast as I Can: from Gilmore Girls to Gilmore Girls (and Everything in Between); and In Conclusion, Don’t Worry About It, in 2018. In 2017, she wrote a screenplay based on the novel The Royal We, by Heather Cocks



1968 – U.S. troops in Vietnam under the command of  Lt. William L. Calley destroy a village consisting mostly of women and children, known as the My-Lai massacre

1969 – The musical 1776 opens on Broadway

1976 – Zhu Chen born in China, Qatari Chess Grandmaster; in 2001, she became Women’s World Chess Champion, and had previously been the World Junior Girls Chess Champion in 1994 and 1996. Her FIDE rating as of March 2019 is 2423, and her highest rating was 2548, in 2008. In 2001, she married Qatari Grandmaster Mohammed Ahmed Al-Modiahki, and she became a Qatari citizen in 2006



1978 – Italian politician Aldo Moro is kidnapped, then later murdered, by left-wing urban guerrillas

1979 – Freedom of Information Day * is proposed by Jim Bohannon, talk show host, to the Society of Professional Journalists to honor James Madison’s birthday (see 1751 entry above) and the Freedom of Information Act

1982 – Russia announces they will halt deployment of new nuclear missiles in Western Europe

1984 – Mozambique and South Africa sign a pact banning support for one another’s internal enemies

1984 – Aisling Bea born, Irish comedian, writer and actress; co-writer of the BBC Radio 4 comedy folklore series Micks and Legends, and since 2018, she’s been the co-host on the BBC Radio 2 show, What’s Normal? Bea was a vocal supporter in 2018 of the ‘Repeal the Eighth’ campaign to make abortion legal in Ireland, and also campaigned for the Irish same-sex marriage referendum in 2015



1985 – The 4,000th performance of A Chorus Line

1987 – Bostonia magazine prints an English translation of Albert Einstein’s last high school report card

1988 – Indictments are issued for Lt. Colonel Oliver North and Vice Admiral John Poindexter of the National Security Council for their Iran-Contra involvement

1989 – U.S.S.R. Central Committee approves Gorbachev’s large-scale agricultural reforms, and elects the party’s 100 members to the Congress of People’s Deputies

1993 – In France, ostrich meat is officially declared fit for human consumption

1994 – Russia agrees to phase out production of weapons-grade plutonium

1998 – Rwanda begins mass trials for 1994 genocide with 125,000 suspects for 500,000 murders

1999 – The 20 members of the European Union’s European Commission announce their resignations amid allegations of corruption and financial mismanagement

2003 – Vice President Dick Cheney predicts on NBC’s “Meet the Press” that American troops will be “greeted as liberators” by the Iraqi people

2003 – Rachel Corrie, a 23-year-old American woman involved with the International Solidarity Movement, is killed trying to prevent a Palestinian home from being destroyed by a bulldozer in Rafah



2010 – A UCLA study finds 1 in 4 Californians have no health insurance, almost two million more than in 2007, mainly due to job loss

2014 – A referendum on the Ukranian region of Crimea joining Russia sparks claims of election rigging and wide-spread pro-Ukrainian protests

2015 – The first No Selfies Day, started by the staffs of the Ocala Star-Banner and The Gainesville Sun, at the suggestion of Khoi Ha, who said, “With all of the social media nowadays, we’re turning a lot of people into narcissists,” and warned that, once posted, the picture sharing quickly spreads beyond the control of their originators

2015 – Black Press Day * is launched by the National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA), originally the National Negro Publishers Association, founded in 1940 when John H. Sengstacke of the Chicago Defender organized a Black publishers meeting; the organization was re-named in 1956, and now has  over 200 African-American newspaper members in the U.S. and the Virgin Islands


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About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 45 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband and a bewildered Border Collie.
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