ON THIS DAY: October 10, 2019

October 10th is

Angel Food Cake Day

National Handbag Day

U.S. Naval Academy Day *

Shift10 Day *

World Homeless Day *

World Mental Health Day *

World Day Against the Death Penalty *

International Stage Manager’s Day *

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MORE! Aksella Luts, Ken Saro-Wiwa and Fiona Rae, click

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WORLD FESTIVALS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

Belgium – Brussels: Transpoesie Poetry Evening

Bhutan – Thimphu: Tshechu Festival
(Birth of Guru Rinpoche)

China – Double Ten Day (1911 Wuchang
Uprising on the 10th day of 10th month)

Cuba – War of Independence Day

Curaçao – National Flag & Anthem Day

Estonia – Tartu:
Tartu International Early Music Festival

Fiji – Fiji Day

Finland – Finnish Literature Day

Kenya – President Moi Day

Mexico – Cancún: Mocha Fest Cancun

Namibia – Rundu:
Food Namibia Conference

North Korea – Party Foundation Day

Poland – Arbor Day

Portugal – Sagres: Sagres Birdwatching Festival

Sri Lanka – Army Day

Suriname – Maroons Day *

Taiwan – National Day *

Vietnam – Capital Liberation Day

Zimbabwe – Harare:
Mitambo International Theatre Festival

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On This Day in HISTORY

680 AD – Battle of Karbala: The forces of Yazid I, the Umayyad Caliph, intercept the caravan of Husayn ibn Ali, grandson of Muhammad, who had refused to give allegiance to Yazid when he ascended the throne; in the battle, Husayn is killed and beheaded, along with most of his family and supporters, including his six-month old son, while the rest of the women and children are taken prisoner. The dead are widely regarded as martyrs by Sufi and especially Shia Muslims. Mainstream Sunni Muslims regard the incident as an historical tragedy, but without influence on Islamic theology or traditions



732 – Battle of Tours: A combined Frankish and Burgundian force commanded by Charles Martel defeats an army of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, who is killed, near the Aquitaine border close to Tours in western France

1355 – Zhu Biao born, Crown Prince of the Ming Empire, noted for the far-reaching consequences of his death from illness in 1392 at the age of 36. Zhu Biao’s younger brother Zhi Di usurped the throne from Zhu Biao’s son, Zhu Yunwen, and became the Yongle Emperor. He started destroying or falsifying records concerning his childhood and rebellion, instituted a massive purge of Confucian scholars in Nanjing, and granted extraordinary extralegal powers to the eunuch secret police. He moved the imperial capital from Nanjing to Beiping (now Beijing), then greatly expanded the imperial examination system to gain more control over Confucian scholars-bureaucrats. He died leading a 1424 military campaign in the Gobi Desert. He is equally remembered for his building program, including the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing, his ambitious and costly military campaigns, and his cruel despotism, killing most of the servants who had been in the palace during his brother’s reign, and torturing to death many of his nephew’s supporters. He was succeeded by his son Zhu Gaochi, the Hongxi Emperor, who did much to restore the civil government


Porcelain Tower at Nanjing, circa 1865,
watercolour by Lieutenant James Henry Butt

1629 – Richard Towneley born, English mathematician and astronomer, one of the pioneers in research astronomy

1684 – Jean-Antoine Watteau born, French Rococo painter


Le-enseigne-de-gersaint, by Jean-Antoine Watteau – 1720

1731 – Henry Cavendish born, British natural philosopher, scientist; important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist

1760 – Maroons Day * celebrates the signing of a treaty with Dutch colonizers by the Ndyuka people, one of six ‘Maroon’ peoples in Suriname and French Guiana, descended from African slaves brought to work on Dutch-owned plantations who escaped into the rain forests, that secures their territorial autonomy

1837 – Robert Gould Shaw born, American Union Colonel who commanded the 54th Massachusetts, the first all-black regiment in the Northeast, and supported his men in refusing their pay until it was equal to white troops’ wages; killed at the Second Battle of Fort Wagner in South Carolina while leading his men at the parapet of the enemy fort; only 315 men from the 54thwere left after the battle, but it proved the bravery of black soldiers and led to more Union recruitment of African-American troops



1845 – The Naval School opens in Annapolis MD with 50 midshipmen – later renamed the U.S. Naval Academy *

1846 – English astronomer William Lassell discovers Triton, the planet Neptune’s largest moon



1861 –  Fridtjof Nansen born, Norwegian explorer, scientist, and humanitarian;  president of the Norwegian League of Nations Society, worked on behalf of stateless refugees, devising a document that became known as the Nansen passport, that over time was recognized by more than 50 countries, enabling refugees to cross borders legally – Marc Chagall, Igor Stravinsky and Anna Pavlova were among the holders of Nansen passports; 1922 Nobel Peace Prize for his work repatriating prisoners of war, aiding refugees, and efforts to aid millions of sufferers during the Russian famine



1865 – John Wesley Hyatt patents the billiard ball

1868 – Carlos Manuel de Céspedes issues the “10th of October Manifesto” signaling the start of an all-out military uprising to gain Cuba’s independence from Spain

1870 – Louise Mack born, Australian novelist, poet and journalist-columnist, pioneering woman war correspondent; she was traveling in Europe as a correspondent for the London Daily mail in 1914, and became an eye witness to the WWI German invasion of Antwerp, Belgium; the Evening News and the Daily Mail published her accounts of what she saw; her diary of the time she spent behind enemy lines was later published as A Woman’s Experiences in the Great War



1871 – After two days, the Great Chicago Fire burns itself out, aided by rain which began falling late in the evening of October 9. The fire killed almost 300 people, destroyed 3.3 square miles (9 km) of the city, and left over 100,000 people homeless

1886 – The Tuxedo dinner jacket makes its debut in New York City, named by the multi-millionaire members of the Tuxedo Club at Tuxedo Park, upper NY state retreat developed by Pierre Lorillard IV, scion of the Lorillard Tobacco Company family



1898 – Lily Daché born in France, American fashion designer, entrepeneur and author, noted for her hat designs; author of Lilly Daché’s Glamour Book and her autobiography, Talking through My Hats 



1900 – Helen Hayes born as Helen Hays Brown, American actress of stage, screen and television, whose career spanned 80 years, dubbed the “First Lady of the American Theatre.” She is one of only 15 performers who have won an Emmy, a Grammy, an Oscar and a Tony Award. Hayes also received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the National Medal of Arts. In 1982, she was a co-founder with Ladybird Johnson of the National Wildflower Research Center. Hayes was a notable philanthropist, donating time and money to several causes, especially New York’s Riverside Shakespeare Company, and the Helen Hayes Hospital, a physical rehabilitation hospital, which was renamed in her honor in 1974, after she had served on its Board of Visitors since 1944, advocating tirelessly for the hospital and raising funds



1901 – Alberto Giacometti born, Swiss sculptor



1901 – Frederick Douglass Patterson born, American academic and administrator; at Tuskegee Institute, he founded the School of Veterinary Medicine at Tuskegee in 1944, and was the college’s president (1935-1953); founder of the United Negro College Fund. Honored with the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1987



1902 – K. Shivarama Karantha born in British India, Indian polymath, author, social activist, environmentalist, and filmmaker; considered a very influential novelist in the Kannada language, publishing 47 novels, 31 plays, collections of short stories, essays and poetry, and 13 books on art. Honored with the 1978 Jnanpith Award, India’s highest literary honor



1903 – Vernon Duke born in Russia, American composer and songwriter; music for “Taking a Chance on Love” “I Can’t Get Started” and “April in Paris”

1903 – The Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) is founded by Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters Christabel and Sylvia in Manchester, later moving operations to London, a militant organization campaigning for suffrage for British women. Their slogan is “Deeds, not words”



1905 – Aksella Luts born as Aksella Kapsta, Estonian actress, screenwriter, dancer, choreographer, film editor and photojournalist. She and her husband Theodore Luts founded the Tartu Filmiühing (Tartu Film Society), and co-authored the script for Estonia’s first feature-length dramatic silent film, Noored kotkad (Young Eagles), about the 1918-1920 Estonian War of Independence, and the script for the 1932 melodrama  Päikese lapsed (The Children Of The Sun). The film was Estonia’s first feature-length Estonian language sound film, for which Aksella Kuts choreographed a dance sequence. They moved to Finland in 1938, and Aksella worked as screenwriter for Fenno-Filmi OY under the masculine pen name Antti Metsalu.  In 1944, they moved to Stockhom, Sweden, where she worked as a librarian and archivist for the Folk Universitetet. After WWII and the Soviet annexation of Estonia, they relocated to Brazil, where they founded a new film company, Theodor Lutsu firma, and she also worked oher jobs, including film editing for another company. Her husband died in 1980, and in 1996, she returned to Estonia, where she gave television and radio interviews under her death in 2005 at age 99



1908 – Mercè Rodoreda born, Spanish notable Catalan-language novelist and short story writer; Catalan is spoken primarily in Catalonia, Valencia, and the Balearic Islands



1911 – The beginning of the Wuchang Uprising, which leads to the collapse of China’s Qing dynasty, and the establishment of the Republic of China – commemorated as National Day * in Taiwan

1911 – Clare Hollingworth born, English journalist and author; in 1939, as a reporter for The Daily Telegraph traveling from Poland to Germany, she saw and reported German forces massed on the Polish border, and became the first war correspondent to report the outbreak of WWII; she was at the scene when the King David Hotel in Jerusalem was bombed in 1946, and reported on the Algerian War in the early 1960s; she broke the story of Kim Philby’s defection to the Soviet Union in 1963, and covered the Vietnam War beginning in 1967



1913 – U.S President Wilson triggers the rigged explosion of Gamboa Dike, completing construction of the Panama Canal

1917 – Thelonious Monk born, American Jazz pianist and composer



1924 – James Clavell born in Australia, American author and screenwriter; his novel King Rat is inspired by his 3-years as a WWII POW in the notorious Changi Prison camp



1924 – Ludmilla Tchérina born in Paris to an exiled Circassian noble and a French mother; French prima ballerina, choreographer, artist and author of two novels



1928 – Chiang Kai-shek becomes Chairman of the Republic of China

1930 – Harold Pinter born, English playwright, screenwriter, director; 2005 Nobel Prize in Literature



1935 – Judith Chalmers born, British radio and television presenter; best known for presenting ITV’s travel programme Wish You Were Here . . .?, from 1974 to 2003. She began working for BBC Radio at age 13, on the BBC Northern Children’s Hour (1948). In the 1960s she was a presenter on BBC Radio’s Family Favourites, and Woman’s Hour



1938 – Lily Tuck born, American author; her novel The News from Paraguay won the 2004 National Book Award for Fiction



1941 – Ken Saro-Wiwa born, Nigerian writer and activist; leader of the nonviolent campaign to restore homeland of his people, the Ogoni, which suffered extreme environmental damage from decades of petroleum waste dumping; hanged during the military dictatorship of General Sani Abacha in 1995, after being imprisoned for over a year before being tried and convicted of inciting murder, which also happened to 8 other leaders of the campaign; the trials were widely criticized by human rights organizations



1950 – Eleanor Robertson born, prolific American novelist who writes romance novels under the pen name Nora Roberts, and mysteries as J.D. Robb. She founded the Nora Roberts Foundation to promote literacy and the arts, assist children in need, engage in humanitarian efforts, and fund an academic scholarship program



1952 – Dame Dela Smith born, British educator and authority on special needs education; Headteacher at the special education school Beaumont Hill Technology College (1992-2010), where students are ages 5 to 19, with a wide range of special education needs



1953 – Fiona Rae born in H0ng Kong, British artist, part of the visual arts group, Young British Artists, who first exhibited together in 1988; elected to the Royal Academy of Arts in 2002


She Pricked Her Finger Cutting the Clouds,
by Fiona Rae

1957 – U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower apologizes to the finance minister of Ghana, Komla Agbeli Gbedemah, after he is refused service in a Howard Johnson’s restaurant in Dover, Delaware

1958 – Julia Anne Sweeney born, American comedian, actress and writer; Saturday Night Live cast member (1990-1994); alumni of The Groundlings improvisational troupe’s Sunday Company (1988-1989); co-star of the Hulu comedy web TV series, Shrill, which premiered in March, 2019; noted for writing monologues, including  God Said Ha!, In the Family Way and Letting Go of God. She is on the Boards of the Secular Coalition for America, Freedom from Religion Foundation, and the Center for Inquiry



1959 – Pan American World Airways announces first global air service



1962 – The BBC bans “The Monster Mash” song by Bobby ‘Boris’ Pickett



1965 – The Red Baron makes his first appearance in the Peanuts comic



1966 – The Beach Boys release their single “Good Vibrations”

1969 – Dilsa Demirbag-Sten born, Kurdish-Swedish author and journalist; she is Secretary General of Berättarministeriet, a foundation to enhance education for children and young people she co-founded together with Robert Weil and Sven Hagströmer in 2011. Demirbag-Sten is a member of the Swedish Press Council, anmd frequent contributor to Swedish newspapers. In 2018, she was awarded the St. Erik medal for her contributions to Stockholm county. Her books include Stamtavlor (Pedigress) and Fosterland 



1971 – Sold, dismantled and moved to the United States, London Bridge reopens in Lake Havasu City, Arizona



1973 – U.S Republican Vice President Spiro Agnew resigns after being charged with evasion of federal income tax

1973 – Fiji becomes independent after nearly a century of British rule

1974 – Lucy Powell born, British Labour and Co-operative politician; Member of Parliament for Manchester Central since 2012

1978 – Naomi Levari born in the U.S., her family moved to Jerusalem when she was age 5; Israeli film producer and director; co-founder of Black Sheep Productions; Levari is dedicated to improving the status and representation of women in the Israeli film industry, and is the founder of the Center for Equal Opportunities in the Film and Television Industry. Noted for her documentaroes, Blue White Collar Criminal; Ameer Got His Gun; and Teacher Irena, and as co-producer on Farewell Herr Schwarz, a multiple award-winner



1984 – U.S. Congress passes the 2nd Boland Amendment, outlaws solicitation of 3rd-party countries to support the Contras, also bars use of funds available to CIA, defense, or intelligence agencies for “supporting, directly or indirectly, military or paramilitary operations in Nicaragua by any nation, group, organization or individual”

1987 – Tom McClean sets 54 day/18 hour record rowing solo across the Atlantic Ocean

1988 – U2 releases their album Rattle and Hum

1989 – Emer Kenny born, British actress and television writer; noted for writing several episodes of the long-running EastEnders series between 2012 and 2014

1994 – Iraq announces its withdrawal from Kuwaiti border. No pullback is observed

1995 – Gary Kasparov wins chess championship against Viswanathan Anand

2005 – Angela Merkel becomes German’s first female chancellor



2009 – Armenia and Turkey sign protocols in Zurich, Switzerland to open their borders

2010 – World Homeless Day * is organized as a day to advocate for increased funding for assistance to the homeless, more affordable housing, coordination of efforts to aid homeless people, and other issues related to homelessness



2013 – International Stage Manager’s Day * is launched by the Stage Management Association UK; now observed in over a dozen countries



2013 – World Mental Health Day * is inaugurated as part of the World Health Organization’s comprehensive mental health action plan 2013–2020

2016 – Shift10 Day, * a movement to encourage buying from non-chain businesses by pledging to spend 10% of your budget at local businesses and farmers’ markets

2017 – New Yorker magazine publishes allegations by 3 women that Hollywood mogul Harvey Weinstein had raped them, and statements of 10 more women that Weinstein sexually assaulted or harassed them. Weinstein’s wife Georgina Chapman announced she is leaving him, calling his reported actions “unforgivable.” This followed after an October 5 report published in the New York Times, detailing allegations of decades of sexual harassment by Weinstein, including statements from actresses Rose McGowan and Ashley Judd, and the October 8 firing of Weinstein by the board of his company


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About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 50 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband.
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2 Responses to ON THIS DAY: October 10, 2019

  1. I enjoy your posts. Love history and connections to today. Thanks so much 🙂

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