ON THIS DAY: November 1, 2019

November 1st is

National Author’s Day *

National Calzone Day

Extra Mile Day *

Prime Meridian Day *

World Vegan Day *

November is U.S. Native American Heritage Month *

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MORE! Sippie Wallace, Red Fox James and Yuko Shimizu, click

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WORLD FESTIVALS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

Christian: All Saints’ Day

 Algeria – Revolution Day

Antigua & Barbuda – Independence Day

Bagladesh, Burma and northern India –
Chavang Kut (Kuki-Chin-Mizo harvest festival)

Bhutan – Druk Gyalpo Coronation

Brazil – Manaus: Amazon Film Festival

Bulgaria – National Awakening Day

Czechia – New Town: Strings of Autumn

Haiti – Port-au-Prince: Fet Gede (Feast of the Ancestors)

India – Pushkar: Pushkar Camel Fair

Japan – Self-Defense Forces Day

Mexico – Día de los Muertos (2nd day observance)

Peru – Puno: Fiesta Jubilar de Puno (Birth of Manco Cápac)

Samoa – Arbor Day

South Africa – Children’s Day

Spain – Granada: Granada International Jazz Festival

Turkmenistan – Health Day

U.S. Virgin Islands – David Hamilton Jackson Day *

Wales – Calan Gaeaf  (Welsh first day of winter)

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On This Day in HISTORY

1009 – Battle of Alcolea: in Spain, the Berber army of Sulayman ibn al-Hakim, in alliance with Count Sancho Garcia of Castile, defeats the Umayyad forces of the Caliph of Cordoba, Muhammad II ibn Hisham

1148 – Empress Matilda’s reign as ‘Lady of the English’ ends as Stephen of Blois takes the throne of England



1512 – Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel ceiling is first viewed publicly



1519 – Spanish Conqustador Hernán Cortés and his soldiers leave Cholula (in the modern-day state of Puebla, Mexico) and pass through Huejotzingo, on their way to conquer Tenochtitlán, capital city of the Aztecs

1526 – Catherine Jagiellon born, Polish princess who married John III of Sweden, becoming Queen consort of Sweden (1569-1583), and Grand Princess of Finland. She had significant influence over state affairs during the reign of John III. As a Catholic queen in a Protestant nation, she negotiated with the Vatican over a count-reformation in Sweden, but was unable to persuade either the Pope or the Swedish Protestants to make enough concessions for a workable compromise


Catherine Jagiellon – by Cranach the Younger

1555 – French Huguenots establish the France Antarctique colony on Guannabara Bay in Brazil – in 1567, the Portuguese destroy it and expel the French Protestants

1604 – William Shakespeare’s tragedy Othello debuts at Whitehall Palace in London

Whitehall Palace, artist concept, around 1530 – artist unknown

1609 – Sir Matthew Hale born, English barrister, judge and legal scholar; notable for his treatise Historia Placitorum Coronæ, (The History of the Pleas of the Crown)

1611 – Shakespeare’s play The Tempest is performed for the first time, also at Whitehall Palace in London

1683 – The British Crown colony of New York is subdivided into 12 counties

1765 – The Stamp Act, ‘Duties in American Colonies Act,’ goes into effect, imposing a direct tax on the colonies and requiring that paper produced in London carrying the embossed revenue stamp must used for many printed materials in the colonies – the tax had to be paid in British currency instead of colonial paper money. The British government claimed the tax was necessary to support trips sent to America to protect the colonists from the Indians, but the Americans insisted they could protect themselves

1790 – Edmund Burke publishes Reflections on the Revolution in France, predicting that the French Revolution will end in a disaster



1798 – Sir Benjamin Guinness born, Irish brewer, first lord mayor of Dublin under the reformed corporation (1851), and philanthropist; grandson of the brewery’s founder, Arthur Guinness, who develops export trade of stout to the U.S., the foundation of the family fortune

1800 – John Adams, 2nd U.S. President, becomes the first president to live in the Executive Mansion (now called the White House)


Executive Mansion, etching circa 1800

1814 – Congress of Vienna opens to re-draw the European political map after the defeat of the French in the Napoleonic Wars

1815 – Crawford W. Long born, American physician and pioneer in the use of anesthetics

1848 – In Boston, Massachusetts, the first medical school for women opens, The Boston Female Medical School (it later merges with Boston University School of Medicine)

1848 – Caroline Still Anderson born, African-American physician, educator and social activist. She was one of the first American black women to become a doctor, and was a pioneering physician in Philadelphia’s black community. Her parents were both leaders in the abolitionist movement – her father was the head of the Philadelphia branch of the Underground Railroad. She attended the Institute for Colored Youth, then went to Oberlin College, where she was the only black student in her class, and the youngest graduate of her year, earning her degree at 19. She was elected as the first black president of the Ladies’ Literary Society of Oberlin. She married her first husband in 1869, but he died in 1875. Two years later, she completed her studies at Howard University College of Medicine, then earned her Doctor of Medicine degree at the Woman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1878, one of only two black students. In 1878 she applied for an internship at Boston’s New England Hospital for Women and Children, but her initial application was rejected by the hospital board because of her race. After she met with the board in person, they appointed her to the internship by a unanimous vote. When her internship ended in 1879, she moved back to Philadelphia, opened a dispensary and founded a private practice. She married again, this time to a minister, Matthew Anderson. With Anderson, she co-founded the Berean Manual Training and Industrial School, a vocational and liberal arts institution, where she taught classes and acted as assistant principle. Her busy career ended in 1914, when she suffered a paralytic stroke. In her later years, she worked with several Philadelphia organizations, including the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, a group opening YMCAs for black men, and she was on the board of the Home for Aged and Infirm Colored People of Philadelphia. She died in 1919, at the age of 70, after suffering additional strokes



1849 – William Merritt Chase born, American Impressionist painter; teacher of Georgia O’Keefe and Edward Hopper

1856 – The first photography magazine, Daguerreian Journal, is published in NYC



1861 – American General George McClellan becomes the Union Armies’ general-in-chief

1864 – U.S. Post Office starts selling money orders, a safer way to mail payments

1870 – U.S. Weather Bureau, originally within the Department of War, makes its first official meteorological forecast (later moved to the Department of Agriculture, then the Department of Commerce, and renamed the National Weather Service)

1871 – Stephen Crane born, American writer best remembered for his novel The Red Badge of Courage



1877 – Roger Cuthbert Quilter born, English composer

1880 – Grantland Rice born, American syndicated columnist and sportswriter; the Football Writers Association established the Grantland Rice Memorial Award in 1954



1880 – Sholem Asch born in Poland, Jewish novelist, playwright and essayist who wrote in Yiddish, who emigrated to the U.S.

1880 – Alfred Wegener born, German polar researcher, geophysicist and meteorologist; originator of the Continental Drift theory

1884 – Prime Meridian Day * – Representatives from 25 nations meet in Washington DC, and decide to use the British designation of Greenwich as the Prime Meridian as an international standard, instead of each nation using a meridian that runs through their country as its Prime

1885 – Anton Flettner born, German aviation engineer and inventor; in addition to his contributions to aviation, he developed the Flettner Rotor ship which uses 90 % less fuel, and a much smaller crew than conventional ocean liners

1886 – Sakutarō  Hagiwara born, Japanese poet of the Taishō and early Shōwa periods, who freed Japanese verse from the traditional rules; “father of modern colloquial Japanese poetry”


Sakuturo Hagiwara – 1943, by Onchi Koshiro

1889 – Hannah Höch born, German Dada artist, painter and pioneer in photomontage; notable for works exploring changing gender roles, androgyny and political discourse in the years between WWI and WWII


Life Portrait by Hannah Höch – (detail)

 

1893 – The First MatabeleWar – Battle of Bembesi:  Tens of thousands of Matabele (Ndebele Kingdom) warriors led by King Lobengula, demonstrate their courage by a frontal attack on under 700 British soldiers commanded by Major Patrick Forbes, but they are no match for the British Maxim guns. Though the detachment of British soldiers sent in pursuit of the fleeing warriors are killed, the war was won by the British at Bembesi

1894 – Nicholas II becomes the last Tsar of Russia after his father Alexander III dies

1894 – Thomas Edison films sharpshooter Annie Oakley

1896 – A picture showing the bare breasts of a woman appears in National Geographic magazine for the first time

1897 – The first Library of Congress building opens its doors to the public; the library had previously been housed in the Congressional Reading Room in the U.S. Capitol

1898 – Sippie Wallace born, American blues singer-songwriter, called “The Texas Nightingale.” She made recordings for Okeh records with her brother George, and with a young Louis Armstrong. She retired from show business in the 1930s, and became a church organist, until her friend Victoria Spivey, who had founded her own record label, coaxed her out of retirement. Wallace toured folk and blues festivals and recorded two albums, Women Be Wise, and Sings the Blues, in 1966, which brought her to the attention of Bonnie Raitt. They made recordings and toured together in the 1970s and 1980s, but Wallace also continued her solo career. She was nominated for a Grammy Award in 1983. After a concert at a jazz festival in Germany in 1986, she suffered a severe stroke, and returned to the U.S., where she died on her 88th birthday that year   



1899 – Sir Gavin de Beer born, British evolutionary embryologist, who stressed heterochrony, the changes in the timing or rate of events; winner of the Royal Society’s Darwin Medal

1904 – The U.S. Army War College in Washington Dc enrolls its first class

1915 – Red Fox James, a member of the Blackfoot nation, decides ride a horse from state to state seeking approval from 24 separate state governments for a day to honor the “American Indian” – in December of 1915 he presented it to the White House, apparently to no positive effect. It was not until 1990 that a joint resolution of Congress proclaimed November as Native American Heritage Month *



1915 – Margaret Taylor-Burroughs born, American painter and poet; co-founder of the DuSable Museum of African American History

1915 – David Hamilton Jackson, Labor leader, founds the St. Croix Herald, criticizing Danish colonial rule and demanding better social and economic conditions for the island’s black population. He is a leader in the sugar cane workers strike of 1915-16 over low wages and long hours, which forces plantation owners to accept a 9 hour workday and a raise from 10-25 cents to 35 cents per day – the dock worker strike which followed is also successful – The first day of the Herald’s publication is honored as a public holiday: David Hamilton Jackson Day * to encourage people to make a greater effort to fulfill their dreams



1917 – Zenna Henderson born, American science fiction and fantasy author; nominated for a Hugo Award in 1959 for her novelette Captivity; unlike many other women authors of science fiction at the time, she never used a male pseudonym



1918 – Western Ukraine gains independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire

1920 – American fishing schooner Esperanto defeats Canadian fishing schooner Delawana in the first International Fishing Schooner Championship in Halifax, Nova Scotia



1921 – Wadih El Safi born, Lebanese songwriter-composer, ‘the Voice of Lebanon’



1928 –‘Law on the Adoption and Implementation of the Turkish Alphabet’ replacing an Arabic alphabet with the Latin alphabet, comes into force in Turkey

1930 – A.R. Gurney born, American playwright and author; The Dining Room, The Cocktail Hour and Love Letters

1936 – Benito Mussolini describes the alliance between his country and Nazi Germany as an “axis” running between Rome and Berlin in a speech made in Milan

1937 – Terry and the Pirates debuts on NBC Radio

1938 – Nicholasa Mohr born in New York of Puerto Rican parents, one of the few Latina women authors in the 20th century to be published by major commercial publishing houses; her first book, Nilda (1973), which she also illustrated, won the Jane Addams Children’s Book Award; her second book, El Bronx Remembered was published by Harper & Row in 1975, and she became the first Latin woman to win the New York Outstanding Book Award



1938 – Seabiscuit defeats War Admiral in an upset victory during a match race deemed “the match of the century” in horse racing



1938 – Emily England Clyburn born, librarian and longtime wife of South Carolina’s U.S. Representative Jim Clyburn. She was a public school librarian in Columbia and Charleston, then spent 29 years as a medical librarian at the Charleston Naval Base and Dorn VA Medical Center in Columbia. She and Clyburn met during college at a courthouse, after he had been arrested with several others for staging sit-in protests against segregated businesses. The protesters had not been fed at the jail, and when she heard him say how hungry he was, she bought a hamburger and split it with him. They were married a year later, and celebrated their 58th wedding anniversary in June before she died in September, 2019. In his memoirs, Jim Clyburn gave his wife much credit for being the motivator behind his political career, and the person he asked for advice on his most vexing decisions in Washington. The two of them raised millions of dollars for scholarships to their alma mater, South Carolina State University



1941 – Ansel Adams takes a picture of Moonrise over the town of Hernandez, New Mexico, that becomes one of the most famous images in the history of photography



1946 – Yuko Shimizu (清水 侑子 Shimizu Yūko) born, Japanese designer; creator of  Hello Kitty and Angel Cat Sugar



1948 – Amani Karume born, President of Zanzibar (2000-2010); Zanzibar House of Representatives (1990-2000)

1949 – The U.S. Department of Commerce declares Author’s Day * as an official national day. First proposed in 1928 as a tribute to American Authors by schoolteacher Nellie Verne Burt McPherson to members of the Bement Illinois Women’s Club, and then the General Federation of Women’s Clubs

1951 – Operation Buster-Jangle: 6,500 American soldiers are exposed to ‘Desert Rock’ atomic explosions for training purposes in Nevada –participation is not voluntary

1952 – The U.S. tests the first hydrogen bomb, at Eniwetok in the Marshall Islands

1953 – Jan Davis born, American astronaut and aerospace engineer; first worked for NASA at the Marshall Space Flight Center as an engineer, then named team leader in the Structural Analysis Division in 1986, where she worked on the Hubble Space Telescope; she became an astronaut in 1987, assigned to the Astronaut Office Mission Development Branch, then handled communications with Shuttle crews at Mission Control, and flew on three space shuttle missions, logging over 673 hours in space between 1992 and 1997



1954 – Front de Libération Nationale fires first shots of Algerian War of Independence

1957 – Mackinac Bridge, world’s longest suspension bridge between anchorages at the time, opens to traffic connecting Michigan’s upper and lower peninsulas



1959 – Susanna Clarke born, English author, her first novel, Jonathan Strange & Mr Norrell, won a Hugo Award; also noted for short story collection, The Ladies of Grace Adieu and Other Stories



1961 – Louise Boije of Gennäs born, Swedish feminist writer; noted for her best-selling semi-autobiographical novel,  Stjärnor utan svindel (Stars Without Vertigo)



1963 – Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, with the largest radio telescope ever constructed, officially opens



1964 – Nita Ambani born, influential Indian businesswoman and philanthropist; co-founder and chair of Reliance Foundation, one of the largest private foundations in India, which sponsors education programs and scholarships, Braille materials for the blind, and a cornea transplant program

1964 – The Dave Clark Five performed “Glad All Over” on The Ed Sullivan Show

1967 – Carla van de Puttelaar born, Dutch fine art photographer, noted for portraits and nude studies

1968 – The Motion Picture Association of America’s film rating system is officially introduced, originating with the ratings G, M, R, and X

1972 – Toni Collett Australian actress, singer-songwriter and producer; noted for her performances in Muriel’s Wedding, The Sixth Sense, About a Boy, In Her Shoes, and Little Miss Sunshine. In 2017, she formed Vocab Films with Jen Turner. She is an animal rights supporter, and has campaigned against the Australian sheep farm practice of mulesing, the removal of wool-bearing skin on sheep buttocks



1973 –Leon Jaworski is appointed as the new Watergate Special Prosecutor

1978 – Helen Czerski born, English physicist and oceanographer; Research Fellow in the department of mechanical engineering at  University College London; previously at the Institute for Sound and Vibration Research at the University of Southampton; much of her research focuses on ocean bubbles; regular presenter on science programs for the BBC, and has columns in BBC Focus magazine and the Wall Street Journal; author of Storm in a Teacup: The Physics of Everyday Life; won the 2018 Lord Kelvin Medal and Prize from the Institute of Physics



1981 – U.S. Postal Service raises a first-class letter stamp to 20 cents

1982 – Honda is the first Asian automobile company to produce cars in a U. S. factory when their Marysville, Ohio opens; the Honda Accord is the first car produced there

1993 – The Maastricht Treaty takes effect, formally establishing the European Union

1994 – First World Vegan Day * started on the 50th anniversary of the U.K. Vegan Society – the term ‘vegan’ was coined by Donald Watson to differentiate people who do not eat dairy, eggs or any other foods derived from animals from vegetarians, who do



1995 – Bosnia peace talks open in Dayton, Ohio, formally opened by U.S. Secretary of State Warren Christopher; in addition to the negotiators representing Serbia, Bosnia and Croatia, there are British, French, German and Russian negotiators present

1999 – The National Library of South Africa Act, 1998 (Act 92 of 1998), comes into effect and creates the National Library of South Africa (NLSA) an amalgamation of the State Library in Pretoria and the South African Library in Cape Town

2000 – The Republic of Serbia and Montenegro joins the United Nations

2009 – Extra Mile Day * started by Shawn Anderson of Extra Mile America Foundation 

2011 – China launches its unmanned Shenzhou 8 spacecraft on a mission to robotically dock with the orbiting Tiangong 1 space station module



2011 – U.S. President Barak Obama designates portions of Fort Monroe in Hampton, Virginia, as a National Monument. The site had been a strategic defensive fortification since 1609, and as Fort Monroe, remained in Union hands throughout the U.S. Civil War, becoming a symbol of hope and freedom for slaves who escaped their Southern masters, who found refuge and work at the fort



2016 – Pope Francis said that the Catholic Church would probably never allow women to serve as priests. Pope John Paul II wrote in 1994 that Jesus chose only men as his apostles, and that, “The exclusion of women from the priesthood is in accordance with God’s plan for his Church.” Francis said the letter indicated that the ban would likely endure forever. The pope raised hopes of advocates for ordaining women when he created a commission earlier this year to study the possibility of women serving as deacons, who perform many of the functions of priests. Women served as deacons early in the church’s history


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About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 50 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband.
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