ON THIS DAY: November 19, 2019

November 19th is

Gettysburg Address Day *

National Macchiato Day

International Men’s Day *

Rocky and Bullwinkle Day *

Women’s Entrepreneurship Day

World Philosophy Day

World Toilet Day *

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MORE! Nina Bari, Dick Cavett and Ann Curry, click

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WORLD FESTIVALS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

Belize – Garifuna Settlement Day *

Brazil – Flag Day

Canada – Toronto: Fireworks Festival

India – Uttar Pradesh: Martyrs’ Day

Italy – Cremona: Torrone Festival
(nougat festival)

Japan – Fukouka:
The Grand Sumo Tournament

Mali – Liberation Day

Monaco –
Fète de le Prince Souverain/National Day

New Zealand – Napier:
Sustainable Backyards & Litter Survey

Nigeria – Lagos:
Lagos International Fringe Festival

Oman – HM Sultan Qaboos Birthday

Poland – Gdańsk:
All About Freedom Festival

Russia – Missile Forces and Artillery Day

Switzerland – Bern: Cordon Bleu Festival

Tibet – Lhabab Duechen Festival
(Buddha’s return from heaven)

United States – Puerto Rico: Discovery Day

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On This Day in HISTORY

1493 – Christopher Columbus goes ashore on an island he calls San Juan Bautista (modern-day Puerto Rico)

1563 – Robert Sidney, First Earl of Leicester, born; English statesman, soldier, patron of the arts and poet; John Dowland wrote “Syr Robert Sidney His Galliard” to honor him



1600 – Charles I born, King of England, Scotland and Ireland; his battles with Parliament over his belief in the absolute divine right of kings, including taxation without Parliamentary consent, and his interference in religious matters, led to the English Civil War, and his own trial and execution


King Charles I: Le Roi a la Chasse, by Anthony Van Dyck

1617 – Eustache Le Sueur born, French artist, co-founder of the French Academy of Painting and Sculpture, now a branch of the French Académie des Beaux-Arts. (Le Sueur out-rococo’d just about everybody)


Abduction of Gannymede by Jupiter – by Eustace Le Sueur

1722 – Benjamin Chew born, American Quaker, attorney, jurist and legal scholar, Chief Justice of the Province of Pennsylvania Supreme Court before the American Revolution; friend of George Washington, who provided pro bono his considerable knowledge of law and English legal history to America’s Founding Fathers during the creation of the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights; strong supporter of a free press and free speech

1770 – Bertel Thorvaldsen born, Danish sculptor who spent most of his working years in Italy. He was accepted to the Royal Danish Academy of Art when he was 11 years old. Working part-time with his father, who was a wood carver, Thorvaldsen won many honors and medals at the academy. He was awarded a stipend to travel to Rome and continue his education. In Rome, he became a notable sculptor of heroic neo-classical works, and had clients all over Europe

1794 – The Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation, Between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America, known as “Jay’s Treaty” after American’s chief negotiator, John Jay, resolved such issues as withdrawal of British troops from the ‘Northwest’ territory (the  Ohio area); some U.S. trading rights with British possessions in exchange for limits on American export of cotton; and arbitration to resolve wartime debts and the US-Canadian border, one of the first uses of arbitration in diplomatic history. The terms of the treaty had a 10-year limit – when it expired, attempts at a new treaty failed, one cause of the War of 1812

1802 – Solomon Foot born, American politician and attorney; U.S. Senator, Republican from Vermont (1851-1866), and President pro tempore of the U.S. Senate (1861-1864) during the American Civil War; a strong advocate for the Union; he died in Washington DC in 1866



1802 – Garifuna Settlement Day * – the Garifuna (mixed-race descendants of African and Island Carib and Arawak people) arrive at British Honduras (now Belize)

1816 – Warsaw University, now the largest university in Poland, is established as a Royal University with the permission of Tsar Alexander I when the partitions of Poland separate Warsaw from Kraków

1828 – Lakshmibai born, Maharani of the princely state of Jhansi in Northern India. She became one of the leading figures of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, and a symbol of resistance against the British Raj for Indian nationalists. Just before her husband died, he adopted a child to his heir in the presence of the British political officer, to whom he gave a letter instructing that the child be treated with respect and that the government of Jhansi should be given to his widow for her lifetime. Because the boy was adoped, the British East India Company applied the Doctrine of Lapse, rejecting the child’s claim ot the throne, and annexing the state to its territories. Lakshmibai was given an annual pension and ordered to leave the palace and the fort. When the 1857 rebellion started in Meerut, the Rani got permission from the British political officer to raise a body of armed men for her protection. The city was still relatively calm, but the Rani conducted a Haldi Kumkum ceremony (a married women’s gathering where they exchange turmeric and vermillion powder as symbols of their married status and wishes for their husbands to have long lives) with pomp in front of all the women of Jhansi to provide assurance to her subjects, and convince them that the British were cowards and not to be afraid of them. British forces under Major-General Hugh Rose arrived in March, and Rose demanded the surrender of the city, and said otherwise it would be destroyed. The Rani issued a proclamation: “We fight for independence. In the words of Lord Krishna, we will if we are victorious, enjoy the fruits of victory, if defeated and killed on the field of battle, we shall surely earn eternal glory and salvation.” The city was besieged under heavy bombardment, and an attempt by forces sent by Tantia Tope, one of the leaders of the 1857 Indian Rebellion, to relieve the city failed.  On April 2, the British breached the city’s wall, and in spite of encountering determined resistance which they had to fight block by block, reached the palace. The Rani had fled in the night with her son, surrounded by guards, and joined the rebel forces. The city was given no quarter, not even to the children. The Rani went with the rebel forces to Gwalior, but it was attacked by Rose’s forces in June, and the Rani was severely wounded trying to leave, wearing a sowar’s (horse soldier’s ) uniform, exchanging fire with a British soldier. Not wishing the British to capture her body, she said to burn it. Local people did cremate her after she died. The British captured the city of Gwalior three days later. In the British report of this battle, Hugh Rose commented that Rani Lakshmibai is “personable, clever and beautiful” and she is “the most dangerous of all Indian leaders.” Rose reported that she had been buried “with great ceremony under a tamarind tree under the Rock of Gwalior, where I saw her bones and ashes.” Twenty years after her death, Colonel Malleson wrote in History of the Indian Mutiny: “Whatever her faults in British eyes may have been, her countrymen will ever remember that she was driven by ill-treatment into rebellion, and that she lived and died for her country, We cannot forget her contribution for India.”

1845 – Agnes Giberne born in India during her father’s military service there; prolific British author and amateur astronomer; her early novels, short stories and religious tracts were mostly published under her initials A.G.; a founding member of the British Astronomical Association; her illustrated book Sun, Moon and Stars: Astronomy for Beginners (1879 was very popular, printed in several editions in the UK and the U.S.,  and was followed by Among the Stars, to introduce younger children to astronomy



1847 – Canada’s second railway line, the Montreal and Lachine  Railway, opens

1850 – The first life insurance policy for a woman was issued when Carolyn Ingraham, 36 years old, bought the policy in Madison, NJ

1863 – U.S. President Abraham Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address at the dedication ceremony for the military cemetery at Gettysburg PA



1873 – Elizabeth Henderson McCombs born, New Zealand politician of the Labour Party. Though New Zealand women had won the right to vote in 1893, they didn’t win the right to run for office until 1919. In 1921, she became the first woman elected to the Christchurch City Council, served as one of New Zealand’s first women Justices of the Peace. McCombs had run for parliament in 1928 and 1931, but had lost both races. In 1933, she finally won, the first woman elected to the Parliament of New Zealand, serving as the representative for Lyttelton from 1933 to 1935.  She promoted equal pay for women, changes to the unemployment benefits, which were more generous for men, and recruitment of women into the police force. Her sisters were also notable. Christina Henderson was a leader in the New Zealand women’s suffrage movement as a founding member the National Council of Women, and an advocate for Prohibition. She fought for equal pay for women teachers, and also became one of New Zealand’s first women Justices of the Peace. Stella Henderson was the first woman parliamentary correspondent for a major New Zealand newspaper. Stella was not allowed to sit with the male correspondents in the Press Box, who vociferously objected to a woman’s presence, so she bought a permanent ticket for the Ladies Gallery and wrote her notes on her knees – eventually, after complaints from her employer, a section of the Ladies Gallery was converted into a press box for her


Elizabeth Henderson McCombs

1876 – Tatyana Afanasyeva born, Russian-Dutch mathematician and physicist who contributed to the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics; co-authored The Conceptual Foundations of the Statistical Approach in Mechanics with her husband, Austrian physicist Paul Ehrenfest, published in 1911



1881 – A meteorite lands near Grossliebenthal, southwest of Odessa, Ukraine

1889 – The Provisional Government of Brazil adopts the nation’s modern-day flag  

1893 – First newspaper color supplement is published in the Sunday New York World

1895 – Louise Dahl-Wolfe, American photographer, famed for work in Harper’s Bazaar


1952 shot of Evelyn Tripp, by Louise Dahl-Wolfe, for Harper’s Bazaar

1900 – Anna Seghers born as Anna Reiling, German author; joined the Communist party of Germany in 1928, and wrote Die Gefährten, a novel warning of the dangers of Fascism, which led to her arrest by the Gestapo; she left Germany in 1934, and wrote The Seventh Cross in Paris, then fled from the German invasion in 1940; after making her way to Mexico by 1941, she founded Freies Deutschland (Free Germany), an academic journal. The Seventh Cross was published in the U.S. in 1942, and made into a motion picture in 1944, one of the few depictions of a Nazi concentration camp written during WWII



1901 – Nina Bari born, Soviet mathematician, one of the first women accepted to Moscow State University’s Department of Physics and Mathematics; known for work on trigonometric series



1905 – Tommy Dorsey, American trombonist, composer and bandleader

1916 – Samuel Goldwyn and Edgar Selwyn establish Goldwyn Pictures

1917 – Indira Gandhi born as Indira Nehru, Indian politician, first woman Prime Minister of India (1966-1977 and 1980-1984). She was assassinated in October 1984. She had previously served as Minister of Defense (1980-1982), Minister of Home Affairs (1970-1973), Minister of Finance (1969-1979), and Minister of Information and Broadcasting (1964-1966). Indira Gandhi was the personal assistant of her father, Jawaharlal Nehru, during his tenure as Prime Minister (1947-1964)



1919 – Lolita Lebrón born, Puerto Rican nationalist. When she was 18 years old, her political views were radicalized because of the 1937 Ponce massacre, where a group of militants from the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party were killed during a peaceful protest. She moved to New York City, where she worked as a seamstress, but lost several jobs because she vocally protested discrimination against Puerto Rican workers. By 1946, she had joined the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, and influenced the party to support more involvement for women in politics, and support for economic and social reforms to help end discrimination against women. In May, 1948, a bill was introduced before the Puerto Rican Senate which would restrain the rights of the independence and nationalist movements in the island.  The Bill, often called the “Ley de la Mordaza” (gag law), made it illegal to display a Puerto Rican flag, to sing a patriotic tune, to talk of independence, or to fight for the independence of the island. The Bill, which resembled the anti-communist Smith Law passed in the United States, was signed and made into law in June 10, 1948, by the U.S.-appointed governor of Puerto Rico. In November, 1950, there were a series of armed uprisings in Puerto Rico. An attempt to reach Harry S. Truman with a letter from the leader of the Nationalist Party resulted in a shoot-out which killed one of the nationalists, and was labeled an assassination attempt. The survivor eventually received a presidential pardon. After Puerto Rico became a commonwealth of the U.S., Lebrón and several others attacked the U.S. House of Representatives on March 1, 1954, firing weapons and injuring five lawmakers, one of them seriously. When Lebrón was arrested, she shouted, “I did not come to kill anyone, I came to die for Puerto Rico!” She served 25 years of a 50 year sentence for attempted murder and conspiracy, but was pardoned in 1979 by President Jimmy Carter

1920 – Gene Tierney, American stage and film star, notably in Laura, The Ghost and Mrs. Muir, and Leave Her to Heaven (for which she was nominated for an Academy Award as Best Actress). Her daughter Daria was born deaf and mentally disabled because one of Tierney’s fans broke a rubella quarantine and infected the pregnant actress while she was volunteering at the Hollywood Canteen. Tierney later suffered from bouts of Manic Depressive Disorder, and was unable to work for most of the period between 1955 and 1961, but made a comeback in the 1962 film Advise and Consent, followed by Toys in the Attic. She stopped working in films in 1964, but made a few appearances on television before her death in 1991


From the classic film noir, Laura, showing portrait of Gene Tierney in title role

1924 – Dame Margaret Turner-Warwick born, British physician and thoracic specialist; first woman president of the Royal College of Physicians (1989-1992)

1926 – Jeanne Kirkpatrick born, Republican appointee as the first woman to serve as the U.S. Ambassador to the UN (1981-1985)

1928 – Time magazine’s cover is in color for the first time. The subject was Japanese Emperor Hirohito



1932 – Eleanor F. Helin born, American astronomer, principal investigator of the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) program of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory; she discovered several comets, and was the discoverer or co-discoverer of over 900 numbered minor planets and asteroids



1936 – Dick Cavett born, American talk show host between 1968 and 1996 in various formats, noted for his skilled in-depth interviews; more recently, has been an online columnist for the New York Times



1937 –Penelope Leach born, British psychologist and author specializing in child development and parenting; author of Your Baby and Child: From Birth to Age Five

1939 – Jane J. Mansbridge born, American political scientist; she is the Charles F. Adams Professor of Political Leadership and Democratic Values in the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. Noted for her contributions to democratic theory, feminist scholarship and the empirical study of social movements and direct democracy. Her publications include Beyond adversary democracy, Why we lost the ERA, and Negotiating agreement in politics. In 2018, Uppsala University announced that Mansbridge would be the next laureate of the Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science. When asked what made her a feminist, her short response is: “Harvard”. The sexism and misogyny commonplace in 1960s academia came as a shock and a call to action for the graduate from the all-female Wellesley College. Women were not allowed in the main library at Harvard, and were not allowed in the Harvard Faculty Club without a male escort. And that included women professors



1942 – Sharon Olds born, American poet who won the 2013 Pulitzer Prize in Poetry for Stag’s Leap, and the 1984 National Book Critics Circle Award in Poetry for The Dead and the Living. She has been a Professor at New York University for 40 years. While she was not initially involved the Women’s Movement in the late 1960s, a time when she was married and had her first child, the movement did cause her to realize that “I had never questioned that men had all the important jobs. And that was shocking . . .” When Olds first sent her poetry to a magazine in the 1970s, the reply was: “This is a literary magazine. If you wish to write about this sort of subject, may we suggest the Ladies’ Home Journal. The true subjects of poetry are . . . male subjects, not your children.” Eventually, she published her first collection, Satan Says, in 1980 when she was 37 years old. In 2005, she declined an invitation from First Lady Laura Bush to the National Book Festival, stating in an open letter published in The Nation, “So many Americans who had felt pride in our country now feel anguish and shame for the current regime of blood, wounds and fire. I thought of the clean linens at your table, the shining knives and the flames of the candles, and I could not stomach it.”



1943 – Nazis liquidate Janowska concentration camp in Lemberg (Lviv), western Ukraine, murdering at least 6,000 Jews after a failed uprising and mass escape attempt

1944 – FDR announces the 6th War Loan Drive, to sell $14 billion in war bonds toward paying the U.S. cost of WWII

1946 – Afghanistan, Iceland and Sweden join the United Nations

1950 – US General Eisenhower becomes Supreme Commander of NATO-Europe

1954 – Prince Rainier III launches Télé Monte Carlo, Europe’s oldest private TV channel

1955 – National Review publishes its first issue

1956 –Eileen Collins born, American astronaut, first woman Space Shuttle pilot, and first female commander of a U.S. Spacecraft, logging a total of 537 hours in space

 1956 – Ann Curry born on Guam, American television journalist who has reported from war zones in Syria, Palestine, Darfur, Congo, Central African Republic, Kosovo, Israel, Lebanon, Afghanistan and Iraq



1957 – Gettysburg Address Day * is proclaimed by U.S. President Eisenhower – also called Equal Opportunity Day

1957 – Ofra Haza born, Israeli singer-songwriter-actress



1958 – Annette Gordon-Reed born, American historian and Harvard law professor; her book, Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy (1997), won the Pulitzer Prize for History and the National Book Award for Nonfiction



1958 – Isabella Blow born, English magazine editor, whose career was mainly at Vogue in New York and at Tatler and The Sunday Times Style magazine in London; in addition to her engagement in the world of fashion, she was also a notable patron of the art world

1959 – The Ford Motor Company announces end of production of the unpopular Edsel

1959 – Rocky and Bullwinkle Day – the premiere of Rocky & His Friends on ABC-TV, which moved to NBC in 1961 as The Bullwinkle Show

1962 – Jodie Foster born, American actress, director and producer; winner of two Best Actress Oscars and two Golden Globes, for The Accused and The Silence of the Lambs. She also won an Alliance of Women Film Journalists 2007 Women Image Award. She made her acting debut in 1968 as a child in an episode of the TV series Mayberry R.F.D., and transitioned in the 1970s to films, including Alice Doesn’t Live Here Anymore, and her break-through film in 1974, Taxi Driver. After graduating from Yale, she had trouble getting cast in adult roles, until the 1988 drama, The Accused.  In 1992, she founded her own production company, Egg Pictures, and made her debut as a director with Little Man Tate, followed by The Beaver, and Money Monster. She rarely talks about her private life, especially after she was stalked by obsessed fan John Hinckley during her freshman year at Yale, who tried to assassinate Ronald Reagan in March, 1981, and claimed his motive was to impress her. Because of the media frenzy,  she had to be accompanied by bodyguards on campus, and even though she had nothing to do with Hinckley’s crimes, had to give videotaped testify, which was played at his trial. She was then targeted by other stalkers while still at Yale. In 2014, she married actress and fine art photographer Alexandra Hedison


Jodie Foster – Photo by Matt Baron/BEI/Shutterstock

1967 – TVB is established, Hong Kong’s first wireless commercial TV station

1967 – Randi Kaye born, American television news journalist; currently an investigative reports for the CNN program Anderson Cooper 360°. She won an Emmy for Outstanding Coverage of a Current Business News Story for her reporting on black market infertility in 2006. After her father committed suicide in 2002, she has spoken out about her struggles to understand his death, and to promote suicide awareness

1969 – Apollo program: Apollo 12 astronauts Pete Conrad and Alan Bean land at Oceanus Procellarum (“Ocean of Storms”) third and fourth humans to walk on the Moon



1977 – Egyptian President Sadat is first Arab leader to make an official visit to Israel

1979 – Iranian leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini orders release of 13 female and black American hostages held at the US Embassy in Tehran

1984 – Brittany Maynard born, American activist for the right-to-die, and legalization of assisted dying, after she was diagnosed with terminal brain cancer.  She moved from California to Oregon after being given a prognosis of six months to live in April, 2014, and ended her life on November 1, 2014, in accordance with Oregon state law regarding death with dignity. In response to criticism of her decision by the Pope and the National Right to Live Committee, Maynard’s mother responded, “My twenty-nine-year-old daughter’s choice to die gently rather than suffer physical and mental degradation and intense pain does not deserve to be labelled as reprehensible by strangers a continent away who do not know her or the particulars of her situation.” In part because of Maynard videotaped message made shortly before her death, California has since passed an act which allows terminally ill adults to self-administer lethal drugs under limited and specific circumstances



1985 – Pennzoil wins a $10.53 billion judgment against Texaco, because Texaco executed a contract to buy Getty Oil after Pennzoil entered into an unsigned, but binding, buyout contract with Getty

1993 – U.S. Senate approves sweeping $22.3 billion anti-crime measure

1994 – In the U.K., the first National Lottery draw is held; a £1 ticket gives one-in-14-million odds of getting the winning six out of 49 numbers

1996 – Lt. General Maurice Baril of Canada arrives in Africa to lead a multi-national policing force in Zaire

1997 – U.S. premiere of Paul McCartney’s orchestral “Standing Stone” at Carnegie Hall

1998 – U.S. House of Representatives Judiciary Committee  begins impeachment hearings against U.S. President Bill Clinton

1998 – Vincent Van Gogh’s Portrait of the Artist Without Beard sells for $71.5 million



1999 – International Men’s Day * is founded in Trinidad and Tobago, focusing on improving the health of men

2001 – The World Toilet Organization starts World Toilet Day * to highlight the 2.4 billion people living without a toilet, with a goal of preventing the spread of diseases like cholera, typhoid and hepatitis, as well as ensuring that women and children are not at risk of assault or rape because they lack indoor toilets

2002 – The U.S. government completes its takeover of security at 424 airports nationwide.

2007 – Amazon launches the Kindle E-reader



2010 – The UN General Assembly’s Human Rights Committee, in a draft resolution, criticized Iran for serious human rights abuses, including torture, persecution of ethnic minorities, and violence against women. Iranian diplomat Mohammad-Javad Larijani called the UN censure a “politicization” of human rights, claiming that the U.S. was “the mastermind and main provocateur behind a text that had nothing to do with human rights”

2015 – The American Medical Association (AMA) urges Congress and/or the Federal Drug Administration  (FDA) to ban direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs and medical devices, saying the ads increase demand for inappropriate, expensive treatments even if cheaper ones have the same potential

2017 – Charles Manson, the 1960s cult leader convicted in one of the most infamous murder sprees of the 20th century, died in a California hospital of natural causes. Manson, who was serving nine life sentences, was 83 years old. Members of the so-called Manson Family started the bloody killings on Aug. 9, 1969, at the home of actress Sharon Tate and her husband, director Roman Polanski, who was out of the country. Tate, who was eight months pregnant, and four others were killed. The next night, Manson followers killed supermarket executive Leno LaBianca and his wife, Rosemary. The murderers wrote “death to pigs” and “Helter Skelter” on the walls in victims’ blood. Manson, who wasn’t present during the murders, was convicted as the mastermind 

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About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 50 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband.
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