ON THIS DAY: December 3, 2019

December 3rd is

Himalia Day *

Peppermint Latte Day

Roof over Your Head Day

International Day for Persons with Disabilities *

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MORE! Octavia Hill, Muntu Myesa and Marie Ouedraogo, click

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WORLD FESTIVALS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

Australia – Melbourne: City of
Melbourne Christmas Festival

Bahamas – Nassau:
Creative Nassau Crafts Market

Canada – Toronto:
Festival of Carols

Cuba – Doctors Day

France – Paris: FI Europe
(food ingredients expo)

Hong Kong – Winterfest

India – Bengaluru: Techfest

Japan – Iseaki:
Illumination in Kesouji

Kenya – Nairobi: Ability Fest

Netherlands – Amsterdam:
World Rail Festival

South Africa – Pretoria:
Jakaranda Kinderhuis Liggiefees

Spain – Lloret de Mar: Gran Fiesta

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On This Day in HISTORY

1447 – Bayezid II born, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512, who consolidated the empire, and sent the Ottoman Navy to evacuate Sephardi Jews from Spain after the Alhambra Decree expelling them, offering Ottoman citizenship to the Jews and resettlement anywhere in the Ottoman Empire

1468 – Lorenzo the Magnificent and his brother Giuliano succeed their father, Piero de Medici, as rulers of Florence, Italy


Lorenzo il Magnifico admiring Michelangelo’s Faun by Ottavio Vannini

1557 – The first Covenant of Scottish Protestants is formed by the self-styled “Lords of the Congregation,” a group of Protestant Scottish lairds, including the Earls of Argyll, Glencairn, and Morton, who favored reformation of the church according to Protestant principles, and opposed the marriage between Mary, Queen of Scots, and the Catholic Dauphin of France

1596 – Niccolò Amati born, Italian Master Luthier; because of many losses in his family from the Italian Plague, Amati became one of the first masters to take apprentices outside his family, he taught Andrea Guarneri, and possibly Antonio Stradivari (although no clear documentation exists, some of Amati’s techniques influenced Stradivari’s early work); Amati’s instruments gradually evolved from the traditional pattern followed by his father and uncle into the “Grand Amati Pattern” a slightly larger instrument which allowed a larger sound, with a dorsal pin which enabled the graduation of the thickness of the plates

1621 – Galileo develops the telescope



1678 – Edmund Halley receives an MA from Queen’s College, Oxford.

1684 – Ludvig Baron Holberg, founder of Danish & Norwegian literature, is born

1685 – Charles II bars Jews from settling in Stockholm, Sweden

1729 – Padre Antonio Francisco Soler born, Spanish composer and member of the Order of Saint Jerome; chapel master at the Spanish royal court at El Escorial

1755 – Gilbert Stuart born, American portrait painter


Self-Portrait, by Gilbert Stuart

1792 – The trial of France’s King Louis XVI begins which will lead to his execution

1795 – Rowland Hill born, who would introduce the first adhesive postage stamp in 1840

1803 – Hector Berlioz born, French composer



1810 – Louisa Cheves McCord born, American author, poet and political propagandist from South Carolina. She was a regular contributor to the Southern Quarterly Review and the Southern Literary Messenger. She also published poetry, My Dreams; a translation from the French of Bastiat’s Sophisms of the Protective Policy; and Caius Gracchus, a five-act tragedy. She had a better education than most girls of the time; having studied with French refugees, she was fluent in French, and had such a passion for learning, especially in mathematics, that she was given the same mathematical instruction as her brothers. Her father was a politician, and all the South Carolina political leaders of the day gathered frequently at her house, so she thoroughly absorbed the political views of men like John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay. McCord wrote on the subject of “political economy,” the argument that a sudden end to the slave economy would have a killing economic and social impact on the South, and if all the slaves were freed, there would be widespread unemployment, uprisings, bloodshed, and anarchy, as compared to the happy state of the majority of slaves under the care of their benignly paternalistic owners. Ironically, she also wrote of the “separate spheres” of Man and Woman: a woman didn’t need any political rights because politics was outside her domestic sphere.



1833 – Oberlin College in Ohio opened as the first truly coeducational school of higher education in the United States.

1834 – The Zollverein (German Customs Union) begins first regular census in Germany

1835 – The Manufacturer Mutual Fire Insurance Company of Rhode Island issues the first fire insurance policy

1838 – Octavia Hill born, leader of the British Open-Space Movement, activist for improving the lives of the working poor; co-founder of the British National Trust



1838 – Cleveland Abbe born, American meteorologist and time zone advocate; director of the Cincinnati OH Observatory; developed telegraphic weather reports and daily weather maps; “father” of the National Weather Service

1842 – Ellen Swallow Richards born, American chemist; pioneer in sanitary engineering, the first to apply chemistry to the study of nutrition, and the founder of the home economics movement in the United States. The first woman admitted to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), she graduated with a B.S. in 1873, and stayed on as a chemistry assistant. Richards set to work analyzing Boston’s water supply. In November 1876, she created the Woman’s Laboratory at MIT where women could learn the rudiments of science. In 1884, MIT made Richards its first woman faculty member. She helped develop a new curriculum in air, water, and sewage chemistry. However, she also saw the home and child-rearing as complex and important work, saying the women who did it should be educated. Richards spent thirty years developing the concept of domestic science



1842 – Phoebe Apperson Hearst born, American feminist and philanthropist; benefactor and director of the Golden Gate Kindergarten Association, which had 26 schools in San Francisco before the 1906 earthquake; first woman Regent of the University of California, Berkeley; founder of the University of California Museum of Anthropology; mother of William Randolph Hearst



1847 – Frederick Douglass and Martin R. Delaney begin publishing the North Star, an anti-slavery paper



1849 – California asks to be admitted to the Union as a free state

1857 – Joseph Conrad born in Poland, Polish-English author, regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language; his best-known books are Heart of Darkness and Lord Jim 



1857 – Karl Koller born in Austria, Ophthalmologist who introduced the use of cocaine as a local anesthetic for eye surgery, which greatly simplified the delicate surgery; moved to the U.S in 1888; honored by the American Ophthalmological Society

1857 – Mathilde Kralik born, Austrian composer, pianist, poet and hymnist; studied at the Conservatory of the Society of Friends of Music (1876-1878), graduating with a diploma in composition and a Silver Society Medal; many of her songs and chamber works were popular with fin de siècle concert-goers in Austria, but not well-known outside her homeland. Interest in her work declined after WWI



1861 – In his first annual message President Lincoln argues that “labor is prior to, and independent of capital. Capital is the fruit of labor, and could never have existed if labor had not first existed…”

1883 – Anton von Werbern born, influential Austrian composer and conductor; a member of the Second Viennese School, he was an exponent of atonality and dodecaphony (the twelve-tone technique)

1895 – Anna Freud born in Austria, Austrian-English psychologist and psychoanalyst; pioneer in child psychoanalysis, and one of its first and foremost practitioners. She also made fundamental contributions to understanding how the ego, or consciousness, functions in averting painful ideas, impulses, and feelings. Important in her own right, but diverging from her father in emphasizing the role of the ego (as opposed to id forces) in psychological functioning. Her book The Ego and Mechanisms of Defense (1936) laid the groundwork for ego psychology



1900 – Karna Birmingham born, Australian artist, illustrator and print maker, best known for her pen-and-ink drawings and her illustrations of children’s books. She wrote and illustrated Skippety Songs in 1934, but in 1938, she contracted trachoma, an infection that roughens the inner eyelid, which damaged the cornea, limiting her sight, and her career



1901 – In the State of the Union, U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt asks Congress to curb the power of trusts “within reasonable limits”

1904 – Himalia Day * – At Lick Observatory, Charles Dillon Perrine discovers Jovian moon Himalia, Jupiter’s largest irregular satellite



1906 – U.S. Supreme Court orders Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) leaders extradited to Idaho for trial in the murder case of former Idaho governor Frank Steunenberg, who was assassinated by one-time union member Harry Orchard, a paid informant for the Cripple Creek Mine Owners’ Association; the IWW leaders are found not guilty in two trials

1908 – Edward Elgar’s 1st Symphony in A premieres



1910 – Georges Claude unveils the first modern neon lighting at the Paris Motor Show

1911 – Nino Rota, Italian composer and conductor; noted for film scores

1915 – The U.S. expels German attaches on spy charges

1925 – “Concerto in F,” by George Gershwin, world premiere at New York’s Carnegie Hall, with Gershwin at the piano



1927 – Putting Pants on Philip, the first Laurel and Hardy film, is released



1931 – Alka Seltzer is sold for the first time

1937 – Morgan Llywelyn born in the U.S., American-Irish author of historical fantasy, historical fiction, and historical non-fiction, who writes for adults and young readers, including Lion of Ireland, a New York Times bestseller; The Horse Goddess, winner of ALA Best Novel for Young Adults award; and Strongbow: The Story of Richard and Aoife, winner of the Bisto Award for Excellence in Children’s Literature



1937 – Stephen Rubin born, English shoe manufacturer of Reebok and Adidas

1938 – Sally Shlaer born, American mathematician, software engineer; co-developer of the Shlaer-Mellor method of software development



1942 – Alice Schwarzer born, German journalist, feminist, author and founder-publisher of the feminist journal EMMA. She is also a columnist for the influential German tabloid Bild (Picture), which is one of the best-selling newspapers in Europe. As a child, she was evacuated to Bavaria during WWII. She began her career in journalism in France, and was one of the founding members of Mouvement de Liberation des femmes (MLF, the French Feminist Movement). She was one of the 340 signers of the declaration that they had undergone illegal abortions, part of the successful campaign to legalize abortion in France, and a similar declaration in West Germany, which also resulted in a temporary legalization, but the legislation was struck down in 1975 by the German Constitutional Court. She is noted for her book, Der kleine Unterschied und seine großen Folgen (The little difference and its huge consequences), which was translated into 11 languages, and made her well-known not only in Germany, but across Europe. She is an advocate for women’s economic self-sufficiency, and in favor of banning pornography



1947 – The Tennessee Williams play A Streetcar Named Desire opens at Broadway’s Ethel Barrymore Theater



1948 – The House Un-American Activities Committee announces the “Pumpkin Papers” produced by former Communist spy Whittaker Chambers – they are microfilm of supposed secret documents he claims he hid inside a pumpkin on his Maryland farm

1950 – Muntu Myesa born, South African anti-apartheid activist; Secretary General of the  Azanian People’s Organisation (AZAPO), an affiliate of the Black Consciousness Movement, and Secretary General of South African Students’ Organisation (SASO); died in a car accident in 1990



1954 – William Walton’s opera “Troilus & Cressida,” premieres in London

1954 – Grace Andreacchi born, American novelist, poet and playwright; Music for Glass Orchestra, Raphael and Tobias, Songs for a Mad Queen



1956 – Ewa Kopacz born, Polish Civic Platform politician; current Vice President of the European Parliament beginning in 2019; second woman Prime Minister of Poland (2014-2015); Leader of the Civic Platform Party (2014-2016); she was the first woman to serve as Marshall of the Sejm (Poland’s lower house,  2011-2014); and Minster of Health (2007-2011); Deputy to the Sejm (2001-2014)  



1960 – The musical Camelot debuts at the Majestic Theatre on Broadway

1960 – Julianne Moore born, American Academy Award winning actress, and author of the Freckleface children’s book series; she is a pro-choice activist, and a campaigner for LGBT rights and gun control, and is a supporter of the Parkland students campaign. Moore also works with Everytown for Gun Safety



1964 – Free Speech Movement: Police arrest over 800 students at the University of California, Berkeley, following their takeover and sit-in at the administration building in protest of the UC Regents’ decision to forbid protests on UC property.

1965 – The Beatles album Rubber Soul is released

1967 – At Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South African,  Christiaan Barnard’s team performs the first human heart transplant on 53-year-old Louis Washkansky)

1967 – Marie Françoise Ouedraogo born, Burkinabé mathematician and academic in the Mathematics Department of the University of Ouagadougou; president of the African Mathematical Union Commission on Women in Mathematics in Africa (2009-present)



1973 – NASA’s Pioneer 10 sends back the first close-up images of Jupiter

1974 – Lucette Rådström born, Swedish journalist and television presenter, for TV4 since 1998, and previously for ZTV (1997-1998)



1979 – Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini becomes the first Supreme Leader of Iran

1984 – A cloud of toxic gas escapes from a pesticide plant run by a Union Carbide subsidiary in Bhopal, India, killing over 4,000 people

1992 – First International Day of Persons with Disabilities * is proclaimed by the United Nations on anniversary of the International Year of Disabled Persons (1981)



1994 – The PlayStation is released in Japan

1997 – In Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, representatives from 121 countries sign the Ottawa Treaty prohibiting manufacture and deployment of anti-personnel landmines, but the United States, People’s Republic of China, and Russia do not sign the treaty

2002 – Christina Aguilera’s album “Stripped” is released in the U.S

2002 – The World Food Program (WFP) warns the UN Security Council that 38 million Africans were at risk of starvation, citing the sub-Saharan countries of Zimbabwe, Malawi, Swaziland, Lesotho, Zambia and Mozambique as among the most affected

2005 – XCOR Aerospace makes the first manned rocket delivery of U.S. Mail in Kern County CA

2014 – The Japanese space agency, JAXA, launches the space explorer Hayabusa 2 from the Tanegashima Space Center on a six-year round trip mission to an asteroid to collect rock samples



2018 – Children from Northern California communities devastated by the deadliest wildfire in the state’s history returned to school. Schools in Butte County had been closed since November 8, when the Camp Fire destroyed the town of Paradise and surrounding areas. The fire killed at least 88 people and destroyed nearly 14,000 homes. Two dozen people remained unaccounted for. Nearly all of the 31,000 students at schools that had been closed were able to return, although many had to attend classes in other buildings because their schools were damaged or destroyed


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About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 50 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband.
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