ON THIS DAY: June 14, 2020

June 14th is

Strawberry Shortcake Day

National Bourbon Day *

International Bath Day *

UN World Blood Donor Day *


MORE! Judith Kerr, Che Guevara and Kirron Kher, click



Armenia – Memory for Repressed People Day

Falkland Islands – Liberation Day

India – Odisha: Pahili Raja
(Rainy season observance)

Estonia – Leinapäev (Day of Mourning *)

Latvia – Victims of Communist Terror Day *

Lithuania – Day of Mourning & Hope *
(see 1941 entry)

Malawi – Freedom Day

United States – Flag Day


On This Day in HISTORY

1158 – The city of Munich is founded by Heinrich der Löwe (Henry the Lion) Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, on the banks of the river Isar, north of the Bavarian Alps

1216 – The First Barons’ War was an English civil war between major landowners led by Robert Fitzwalter, and King John over his refusal to abide by the Magna Carta. The rebels invite Louis, son of King Philip II of France and grandson-in-law of English King Henry II, to invade England and overthrow John. After a triumphal entry into London, on June 14, the French forces capture Winchester, well on their way to capturing half of England before they are stopped

1276 – In exile in the southern Chinese city of Fuzhou, fleeing from advancing Mongol invaders, the remaining courtiers of the Song Dynasty crown 5-year-old Prince Zhao Shi as Emperor Duanzong, but the court is forced to flee repeatedly, and Duanzong will die from illness at age 8, after nearly drowning during one of their escapes

1285 – Prince Trần Quang Khải, warrior-poet, of the Vietnamese Trần Dynasty, leads forces which destroy most of the Kublai Khan’s invading Mongol naval fleet under Prince Toghan, in the Battle of Chuong Douong during the Mongols’ second attempted invasion of Vietnam

1287 – Kublai Khan defeats the forces of opposing Mongols, Nayan and other traditionalist Borjigin princes, in East Mongolia and Manchuria

1381 – Richard II of England, only 14 years old, meets leaders of War Tyler’s Peasants’ Revolt on Blackheath, a rallying place for the rebels. During the parley, a mob breaks into the Tower of London and ransacks the Jewel Room

1404 – Welsh rebel leader Owain Glyndŵr, having declared himself Prince of Wales, allies himself with the French against King Henry IV of England

1444 – Nilakantha Somayaji born, major Indian mathematician and astronomer of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. Noted for Tantrasamgraha, his comprehensive and influential astronomical treatise, completed in 1501. He also composed the Aryabhatiya Bhasya, a commentary on infinite series expansions of trigonometric functions and problems of algebra and spherical geometry

1623 – The first American breach-of-promise lawsuit: Reverend Greville Pooley of the Virginia Colony files against Cicely Phippen Bailey Jordan. Her first husband had died of malaria in 1620, and she re-married to Samuel Jordan. When Jordan dies, she is pregnant with his child. With women in short supply in the colony, Pooley only waits four days after Samuel’s death before he proposes to her. Cicely agrees, but on condition that the engagement be kept secret until after the baby is born. Pooley however begins bragging that they are soon to be married, and an angry Cicely breaks off the engagement. Pooley eventually withdraws his suit

1627 – Johann Abraham Ihle born, German amateur astronomer who discovered the  first known globular cluster, M22, in 1665 while observing Saturn

1642 – The first compulsory education law in America is passed by Massachusetts

1775 – The American Continental Congress establishes the Continental Army, considered the birthday of the United States Army

1777 – The Stars and Stripes is adopted by Congress as the Flag of the United States – now Flag Day in the U.S.

1789 – HMS Bounty mutiny survivors including Captain William Bligh and 18 others reach Timor after a nearly 4,600 mile (7,400 km) journey in an open boat

HMS Bounty at Tahiti

1800 –The French Army of First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte defeats the Austrians at the Battle of Marengo in Northern Italy and re-conquers Italy, and Chicken Marengo is created in honor of the victory

1807 – Emperor Napoleon’s French Grande Armée defeats the Russian Army at the Battle of Friedland in Poland (modern Russian Kaliningrad Oblast) ending the War of the Fourth Coalition, an alliance of Prussia, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and Great Britain against Napoleon

1811 – Harriet Beecher Stowe born, American author and abolitionist; Uncle Tom’s Cabin is a huge best-seller: 1.5 million copies are sold in its first year

1822 – Charles Babbage proposes a difference engine in a paper to the Royal Astronomical Society entitled “Note on the application of machinery to the computation of astronomical and mathematical tables”

1830 – Thirty-four thousand French soldiers begin their invasion of Algiers, landing near Sidi Fredj, the start of the French colonization of Algeria

1834 – Isaac Fischer Jr. patents sandpaper

1839 – Henley Royal Regatta: the village of Henley-on-Thames, on the River Thames in Oxfordshire, stages its first regatta

Henley Royal Regatta Illuminations

1839 – Alice Fisher born in England, pioneer in American nursing, whose tenure as a superintendent at the Philadelphia General Hospital dramatically improved the standard of care; she also started the hospital’s nursing school

1846 – The Bear Flag Revolt is launched against Mexico by Anglo settlers in Sonoma, California who proclaim the California Republic

1855 – Robert Bunsen and his assistant, Peter Desaga, perfect the Bunsen burner

1864 – Alois Alzheimer born, German psychiatrist and neuropathologist; credited with identifying the first published case of “presenile dementia” which would later be named after him, Alzheimer’s disease

1872 – Trade unions are legalized in Canada

1877 – Ida Smedley Maclean born, English biochemist; first woman admitted to the London Chemical Society (1920). In 1906 Maclean became an assistant lecturer in  the chemistry department of Manchester University, the department’s first woman staff member. However, she could not speak at the student Chemical Society since women could not be members, and the Society held its meetings in the Student Union building which excluded women. She taught at Manchester until 1910, as well as acting as a demonstrator in the women students’ laboratories and researching the optical properties of organic compounds.  Maclean worked hard to improve the status of women in universities, and was among the founders of the British Federation of University Women in 1907.  In 1910, supported by one of the first Beit fellowships, she began her work in biochemistry at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine, receiving the American Association of University Women’s Ellen Richards Prize for her research. During World War I, she worked at the British Admiralty on gas warfare, and the large-scale production of acetone by fermentation. She was on the council of the London Chemical Society (1931-1934), and was president of the British Federation of University Women (1929-1935). Maclean was regarded as an authority on biochemistry, and her 1943 monograph The Metabolism of Fat was the first published of Methuen’s series Monographs on Biochemical Subjects

1877 – Jane Bathori born, French mezzo-soprano, famous on the operatic stage and important in development of contemporary French music. In the early 1920s she greatly helped to popularize the new music of the day, especially by some of the members of Les Six, giving many first performances of their works. Also celebrated for her performance of Ravel’s song cycle Shéhérazade. During the WWII German occupation of France she lived in exile in Buenos Aires, Argentina

1898 – United Kingdom Prime Minister Lord Salisbury negotiates an Anglo-French agreement on West Africa defining the border between Nigeria and the Gold Coast, ending the Niger crisis

1894 – Marie-Adélaïde born, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg; She became Grand Duchess regnant and ruler of Luxembourg at age 18, reigning from 1912 to 1919. She was Luxembourg’s first woman ruler since Duchess Maria Theresa (1740–1780), and the country’s first monarch to be born within its territory since Count John the Blind (1296-1346).  She abdicated in favour of her sister Charlotte in 1919, and retired to an Italian monastery, where she died of influenza in 1924 at age 29

1900 – Ruth Nanda Anshen born, American philosopher, editor, creator of the Science of Culture Series, and author; The Anatomy of EvilBiography of an Idea, and The Mystery of Consciousness: A Prescription for Human Survival; member of the International Philosophical Society

1900 – Years after Hawaii becomes a U.S. territory, Congress finally passes the Hawaiian Organic Act of 1900, which grants Hawaii a popularly elected government, but with a governor appointed by and serving “at the pleasure of” the U.S. President, confirmed by the Senate, because of racist fears of a “non-white” government

1903 – Rose Rand born in Austria Hungary to a Jewish family, logician and philosopher; member of the Vienna Circle, a group of philosophers and scientists who met regularly at the University of Vienna (1924-1936); she received her PhD in 1938, but was blocked from finding employment, and emigrated to London as a Jew without nationality; she was admitted to the faculty of Moral Science at Cambridge, but lost her privileges in 1943; she struggled financially, then got a small research grant at Oxford, and also worked in practical engineering; moved to the U.S. in 1954, becoming a research associate at the University of Chicago and Notre Dame University; in 1959, she began getting grants and fellowships to work on translations; her research, detailed notes she took at the Vienna Circle meetings, and extensive correspondence with notable philosophers are now at the University of Pittsburg

1904 – Margaret Bourke-White born, American photographer and journalist, war correspondent, photographed the first cover for LIFE magazine

1907 – Landskvinnestemmerettsforeningen (National Association for Women’s Suffrage) wins a partial victory when Norway grants middle class women the right to vote in parliamentary elections. The association was founded in 1898, when Norwegian men achieved full suffrage, but women were left out

1913 – The Immigration Regulation Act is passed in South Africa, restricting immigration of Asians and free movement with the country; Mohandas Gandhi leads Indian residents in protesting and resisting

1914 – Winifred Milius Lubell born, American artist, illustrator, writer and activist for social justice. She created pen and ink portraits of victims of the Great Depression, before proceeding to examine the struggles of the working poor in the towns of the Eastern United States through woodcuts, as well as producing drawings from the sit down strikes in Chicago

1917 – Lise Nørgaard born, Danish journalist, television writer and author, noted for her childhood memoir, Kun en pige (Only a girl), which became a best-seller

1919 – John Alcock and Arthur Whitten Brown depart from St. John’s, Newfoundland on the first nonstop transatlantic flight

1923 – Judith Kerr born in Germany; her family fled to England in 1933, British children’s author and illustrator, known for the Mog series, The Tiger Who Came to Tea, and her semi-autobiographical When Hitler Stole Pink Rabbit  

1923 – Che Guevara born as Ernesto Guevara,  Argentine Marxist revolutionary,  physician, author, guerrilla leader, diplomat and military theorist. A major figure of the Cuban Revolution, his stylized visage has become a ubiquitous countercultural symbol of rebellion and a global insignia in popular culture

1931 – Marla Gibbs born, African American comedian, singer and television producer; best known for her role as Florence Johnston in the CBS sitcom, The Jeffersons (1975-1985).  She was a co-producer and star of the NBC show 227 (1985-1990), and sang the show’s theme song. Gibbs has won seven NAACP Image Awards. From 1981 to 1999, she owned a jazz club in South Central Los Angeles

1936 – Irmelin Sandman Lilius born, Swedish-speaking Finnish writer, translator and poet; her best-known work is a large chronicle of over a dozen books about a fictitious Finnish town she named Tulavall; awarded the 1976 Astrid Lindgren Prize

1937 – Pennsylvania is the only U.S. state to make Flag Day an official state holiday

1937 – U.S. House of Representatives passes the Marijuana Tax Act, which is opposed by the American Medical Association (AMA) because the tax is imposed on physicians prescribing cannabis, retail pharmacists selling cannabis, and medical cannabis cultivation and manufacturing. The AMA proposes that cannabis be added to the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act of 1915 which regulates and taxes the production, importation, and distribution of opiates and coca products, but the bill is passed over the objections put forward by Dr. William Creighton Woodward, legislative counsel for the AMA. Dr. Woodward objects to the bill on the grounds that it was prepared in secret without giving proper time for the AMA prepare their opposition to the bill. He doubts their claims about marijuana addiction, violence, and overdosage, and asserts that because the word ‘Marijuana’ is largely unknown at the time, the medical profession didn’t realize they were losing cannabis. “Marijuana is not the correct term … Yet the burden of this bill is placed heavily on the doctors and pharmacists of this country.”

1938 – Author- Illustrator Dorothy Lathrop wins the first Caldecott Medal, for her illustrations for Animals of the Bible, A Picture Book, awarded by the children’s division of the American Library Association (ALA)

1940 – WWII German forces enter Paris unopposed as Allied forces retreat

1940 – Lithuania loses its independence, bowing to the Soviet Ultimatum that an unspecified number of Soviet soldiers will enter Lithuanian territory and form a pro-Soviet government (the “People’s Government”); in the Soviet–Lithuanian Mutual Assistance Treaty of October 1939, Lithuania agrees to let 20,000 Soviets troops be posted at several bases within Lithuania in exchange for a portion of the Vilnius Region

1940 – 728 Polish political prisoners from Tarnów become the first inmates of the Auschwitz concentration camp

1941 – A wave begins of Soviet mass deportations and murder of Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians; in all, nearly 70,000 people are deported. Most of the men die in Siberian prison camps; women, children and elderly men are forcibly “resettled”

1949 – Albert II, a rhesus monkey, rides a V-2 rocket to an altitude of 83 miles (134 km), becoming the first monkey in space; he survived the flight, but died on impact when his parachute failed

1951 – UNIVAC I is dedicated by the U.S. Census Bureau

1953 – Janet Mackey born, New Zealand Labour Politician; Member of the New Zealand Parliament for East Coast (1999-2005); Member of Parliament for Mahia (1996-1999); Member of Parliament for Gisborne (1993-1996). Chair of the East Coast Regional Employment and Access Council (1984-1990). She was appointed as a justice of the peace in 1988, and became a marriage celebrant in 1989. Her daughter, Moana Mackey, was also a Labour Party Member of Parliament (2003-2014)

Janet Mackey with daughter Moana Mackey

1954 – In 1951, the chaplain of the Illinois Society of the Sons of Liberty, Louis A. Bowman, begins a campaign to add “under God” to the U.S. Pledge of Allegiance. On Flag Day in 1954, President Dwight Eisenhower signs a bill into law which officially adds “under God” to the Pledge

1955 – Kirron Kher born, Indian theatre, film and television actress, TV talk show host, social activist, and member of the Bharatiya Janata political party. Since May 2014, she has served as the representative for Chandigarh in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of India’s Parliament. Kher has been active in Laadii, the campaign against female infanticide, and the Roko cancer awareness campaign

1955 – Chile becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires Convention, a copyright treaty providing mutual recognition of copyrights on works carrying a statement of the reservation of rights, commonly in English listed as “All rights reserved”

1957 – Mona Simpson born, American novelist; her first novel, Anywhere but Here, won a 1986 Whiting Award for Fiction. Simpson’s 1992 sequel, The Lost Father, won the Chicago Tribune Heartland Prize. Her most recent book is Steps (2017)

1959 – The Disneyland Monorail System, the first daily operating monorail system in the Western Hemisphere, opens to the public in Anaheim, California

1962 – The European Space Research Organization is established in Paris – renamed the European Space Agency

1964 – National Bourbon Day * celebrates a U.S. Congressional Resolution that designates Bourbon as America’s “native spirit.” To legally be called Bourbon, it must be distilled in the U.S., be 51% corn, stored in new (not aged) charred-oak barrels, and distilled to no more than 160 proof, and barreled at 125 proof

1966 – The Vatican announces the abolition of the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, its  index of prohibited books, originally instituted in 1500s

1967 – NASA’s Mariner 5 is launched towards Venus

1967 – The People’s Republic of China tests its first hydrogen bomb

1970 – Heather McDonald born, American comedian, writer and actress; she started with The Groundlings improvisational theatre group, then began writing with Keenan Ivory Wayans, and doing stand-up comedy. She was a writer-performer on MTV’s Lyricist Lounge (2001-2002). McDonald has been a writer and made guest appearances on the Chelsea Lately TV show since its premier in 2007. In 2010, she published the memoir, You’ll Never Blue Ball in This Town Again: One Woman’s Painfully Funny Quest to Give It Up, and followed it with My Inappropriate Life (Some Stories Not Suitable for Nuns, Children, or Mature Adults) in 2013. In 2015, her stand-up special, Heather McDonald: I Don’t Mean to Brag, was released on Netflix

1972 – The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) bans DDT in the U.S.; in 2002, DDT residue was still found in some foods grown in America

1982 – Falklands War: Argentine forces in Stanley, the Falkland capital, conditionally surrender to British forces

2000 – Near-Earth asteroid 2002 MN misses the Earth by 75,000 miles (121,000 km), about one-third of the distance between the Earth and the Moon.

2004 – World Blood Donor Day * is started by the World Health Organization (WHO) to encourage people to voluntarily give blood. The limited period that blood can be safely stored, and the number of people in need of transfusions means there is a constant demand for donors, especially people with rare blood types

2016 – International Bath Day * is launched to celebrate the legend of a major discovery in 260 BC, on what is now June 14, by the famous Greek scientist and inventor Archimedes. While taking a bath, Archimedes is supposed to have realized that an object’s volume could be accurately measured by being submerged in water. Unable to contain his excitement, Archimedes leapt out of the bathtub yelling “Eureka, Eureka!”

2017 – Embattled Uber CEO Travis Kalanick said he would take a leave of absence in the latest fallout from an investigation that concluded that the ride-hailing company needs to reform its corporate culture. Kalanick’s move was part of a list of actions Uber announced which were adopted by Uber’s board on the recommendation of the law firm of former Attorney General Eric Holder after a months-long investigation sparked by a sexual harassment complaint. Kalanick said he would use his leave of absence to work on his own performance and actions, and to figure out how to build a “world class leadership team” for Uber. On the same day, Uber board member Arianna Huffington said  that once there is one woman on a board, more women tend to join. Board member David Bonderman, of the private equity firm TPG, responded that including women on boards results in “more talking.” Bonderman resigned after he was called out for his sexist remark

2019 – After Donald Trump said he would accept political dirt on opponents offered by foreign governments, Federal Election Commission Chair Ellen Weintraub tweeted a statement clarifying that it is illegal to “solicit, accept, or receive anything of value from a foreign national in connection with a U.S. election. . . This is not a novel concept. Electoral intervention from foreign governments has been considered unacceptable since the beginnings of our nation.” She added that anyone failing to tell the FBI about any “prohibited donation” or who “accepts foreign assistance risks being on the wrong end of a federal investigation.” Trump earlier defended his remarks, tweeting that it would be “ridiculous” for him to report every conversation he has with a world leader to the FBI. Weintaub has been one of the most vocal opponents against weakening federal laws designed to prevent collusion and interference in the U.S. electoral process.     

2019 – Tens of thousands of Swiss women walked out of their jobs or took part in work stoppages, part of a nation-wide strike in protest of the gender pay gap and women’s inequality. In Basel, a crowd of 50,000 women, many wearing the movement’s signature purple, carried signs with demands for equal pay, denunciation of feminicide, sharing of domestic and care work, non-sexist education in schools, and fulfilled sexuality. They gathered in front of a display of posters showing heroic women of Basel who have led protests since the Middle Ages. There were large street demonstrations in every Swiss city which were cheerful, colourful and noisy.

Women marching in Zurich


About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for over 50 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband.
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