ON THIS DAY: July 1, 2020

July 1st is:

Gingersnap Day

International Joke Day

Creative Ice Cream Flavors Day

National Postal Workers Day *

U.S. Postage Stamp and Zip Code Days *

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MORE! Amber Reeves, Seretse Khama and Ela Gandhi, click

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WORLD FESTIVALS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

Bahrain and Mexico – Engineers’ Day

Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles, Sint Maartin,
St Eustatius and Saba – Emancipation Day

Botswana – Sir Seretse Khama Day
(first President of Botswana 1966-1980)

Burundi, Rwanda and Somalia – Independence Day

Canada – Canada/Dominion Day *

China –
Chinese Communist Party Founding Day

Ghana– Republic Day

Hong Kong –
Administrative Region Establishment Day

Hungary – Officials and Civil Servants Day

India – Doctors’ Day

Portugal – Dia da Madeira

Singapore – Armed Forces Day

Suriname – Keti Koti/Emancipation Day
(slavery abolished 1863)

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On This Day in HISTORY

552 – Battle of Taginae: Byzantine forces under General Narses break the power of the Ostrogoths in Italy, and King Totila of the Ostrogoths is killed; the Eastern Roman Empire gains control of Italy, which will end soon after the death of Justinian I in 565

1311 – Liu Bowen born, Chinese military strategist, philosopher, statesman and poet; a key advisor to Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Ming dynasty



1523 – Augustinian monks Johann Esch and Heinrich Voes, after publicly professing Lutheran doctrine, become the first Lutheran martyrs, burned at the stake by the Roman Catholic Council of Brabant in Brussels. Martin Luther wrote his hymn “Ein neues Lied wir heben an” (“A new song we raise,” usually called “Fling to the Heedless Winds” in English) after hearing of their deaths

1643 – First meeting of the Westminster Assembly, a council of theologians (“divines”) and members of the Parliament of England appointed to restructure the Church of England, at Westminster Abbey in London

1725 – Rhoda Delaval born, Lady Astley by marriage, English portrait painter; died at age 32 just after the birth of her fourth child in three years


Rhoda Delaval Astley, by Arthur Pond

1766 – François-Jean de la Barre, a 20-year-old French chevalier (knight), is tortured and beheaded before his body is burnt on a pyre, with a copy of  Voltaire’s Dictionnaire philosophique nailed to his torso, for not saluting a
Roman Catholic religious procession, singing impious songs, mocking the sacraments, and possessing prohibited books, in Abbeville, France


Detail from the François-Jean de la Barre monument in Abbeville, France

1770 – Lexell’s Comet passes closer to the Earth than any other recorded comet, approaching to a distance of 1,400,000 miles (0.0146 a.u.)

1798 – Napoleon Bonaparte’s army takes Alexandria, Egypt

1804 – ‘George Sand’ born as Amantine-Lucile-Aurore Dupin; French author and playwright who scandalized French society by smoking, wearing men’s clothing, and a series of very public affairs, with composer Frédéric Chopin and author Alfred de Musset among others; noted for Indiana, Consuelo, La Mare au Diable (The Devil’s Pool)



1826 – Ellen Clark Sargent born, American woman suffragist and good friend of Susan B. Anthony, who moved across the country to California in 1852, and established the Nevada County Women’s Suffrage Association, the first in the state. Her husband, Aaron Sargent, elected as a U.S. Senator (R-CA, 1873-1879) was the first Senator to speak for women’s suffrage on the Senate floor, and introduced in 1878 the bill with the twenty-nine words that would become the 19th Amendment, a bill that would be introduced unsuccessfully in every Senate session for the next 40 years. Clark Sargent was a founder of the Century Club, which helped elect women to local school boards, and she served on the boards of the California Equal Suffrage Association and the National American Woman Suffrage Association. Ellen Clark Sargent worked tirelessly for women’s rights, and was the first president of the California Woman Suffrage Association. She died just days after a hard-fought CWSA campaign triumphantly won the vote for California women in 1911. On the day of her memorial service, for the first time in the state, flags were flown at half mast for a woman.


(L to R) Standing: Ida Husted Harper, Selena Solomons, Carrie Chapman Catt,
and Anne Bidwell –
Seated: Lucy Anthony, Dr. Anna H. Shaw, Susan B. Anthony, Ellen Clark Sargent, and Mary Hay

1834 – Deotyma born as Jadwiga Łuszczewska, Polish poet and novelist; noted for Sobieski pod Wiedniem (Sobieski Near Vienna)



1837 – Mandatory civil registration of births, marriages, and deaths in England and Wales is established. Initially the onus lies on registrars to discover and record events, so parents only had to supply information if and when asked. In 1875, the Births and Deaths Act came into force, whereby those present at a birth or death were required to report the event

1850 – Florence Earle Coates born, American poet whose work appeared regularly in many of the major periodicals of her day; several poems were also set to music by composers Amy Beach, Clayton Johns and Charles Gilbert Spross. Matthew Arnold met her on a lecture tour of America, and encouraged her to write, becoming a long-time friend and mentor. In 1886, she was a founder of the Contemporary Club in Philadelphia, and was twice president of Philadelphia’s Browning Society (1895-1903 and 1907-1908); published several poetry collections, including Lyrics of Life and The Unconquered Air



1858 – Velma Caldwell Melville born, American editor, poet, sketch and serial writer; she was editor of the Home Circle and Youths’ Department of the Practical Farmer, and of the Hearth and Home Department of the Wisconsin Farmer; noted for her intensely patriotic writing, and for her book, White Dandy, Or Master And I; A Horse’s Story, which was a variation on the more famous Black Beauty



1858 – Joint reading of papers on evolution through natural selection by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace at the Linnean Society of London



1858 – Alice Barber Stephens born, American painter, engraver and illustrator


Christmas on Fifth Avenue, by Alice Barber Stephens

1862 – Moscow’s first free public library, originally The Library of the Moscow Public Museum (now The Russian State Library) is founded

1862 – U.S. Bureau of Internal Revenue established

1863 – First day of the Battle of Gettysburg, in Pennsylvania, the largest military conflict in U.S soil; the day’s end the Union holds the heights, and reinforcements begin arriving

1867 – Canada becomes a self-governing dominion of Great Britain – Canada Day *

1869 – William Strunk Jr. born, American author of The Elements of Style, later revised and enlarged by his former student E.B. White, which became a highly influential guide to English usage, often called simply ‘Strunk & White’

1872 – Louis Bleriot born, French aviator, first to fly across the English Channel



1873 – Alice Guy-Blaché born, French filmmaker, pioneer in early cinema and narrative fiction films, one of the first women directors; founder and director of Solax Studios; her film A Fool and His Money, made in 1912, had an all-black cast



1876 – Susan Glaspell born, American playwright whose play, Alison’s House, won the 1931 Pulitzer Prize for Drama, was also an actress, director, novelist, biographer, poet, and journalist; co-founder of the Provincetown Playhouse, where Eugene O’Neill’s  early plays were first produced



1885 – Dorothea Mackellar born, Australian author and poet; best-known for her poem “My Country”



1887 – Amber Reeves born, New Zealand- born British author, socialist and feminist; chose getting an education at Cambridge over a Court Presentation as a debutante; wrote four novels and four works of non-fiction with socialist and feminist themes; member of the Labour Party, and edited Womens Leader, a party publication



1892 – James M. Cain born, American crime fiction author; The Postman Always Rings Twice, Double Indemnity

1893 – Walter White born, civil rights activist; joined the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1918, and became its chief investigator of lynchings, because his blue eyes and light hair, paired with his Southern accent, enabled him to get answers when he questioned politicians and suspected lynchers; the information he uncovered was then broadcast by the NAACP, which influenced public opinion against lynchings. White served as head of NAACP for over 20 years


Walter White circa 1950 and as a college graduate

1895 – Lucy Howorth born, attorney, U.S. magistrate, legislator, civil servant, and woman suffragist. At age 22, on August 18, 1917, she was one of the witnesses in the gallery when the Tennessee state legislature cast the deciding vote to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, a long fight for the right to vote that women finally won. This inspired her lifelong fight for the civil rights of minorities and women. She practiced law and served as judge in Mississippi, then  represented Hinds County in the Mississippi House of Representatives (1932-1936). She is also known for her New Deal legislative efforts in Washington DC, including serving on the U.S. Board of Veterans Appeals (1936-1943), and on the War Claims Commission (1949-1954) as associate general counsel, deputy general counsel, and general counsel. She returned to Mississippi and practiced law until she retired in 1975, at the age of 80. Howorth then became a co-editor of her grandfather’s Civil War letters to her grandmother, which were published as My Dear Nellie in 1978



1898 – Theodore Roosevelt and his “Rough Riders” wage a successful assault on San Juan Hill in Cuba during the Spanish-American War

1901 – Irna Phillips born, American scriptwriter, casting agent and actress, dubbed the “Queen of the Soaps” for creating, producing and writing several of the first daytime radio and television soap operas, including radio’s Woman in White, and TV’s Guiding Light, As the World Turns and Another World; mentor to Agnes Nixon and William J. Bell, also pioneers in daytime television



1903 – Amy Johnson born, British pilot and ground engineer, set numerous long-distance records; Air Transport Auxiliary (ATA) member during WWII; she was killed during an ATA ferry flight in 1941



1904 – Mary Steichen Calderone born, American physician and public health advocate for sexual education, medical director for Planned Parenthood



1906 – Estée Lauder born, American businesswoman, co-founder of Estée Lauder Companies; one of Time magazine’s 20 most influential business geniuses of 1998; posthumously honored with the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2004



1921 – Sir Seretse Khama born, into one of the most powerful African royal families, in the British Protectorate of Bechuanaland. In 1946, he went to Balliol College, Oxford, then joined the Inner Temple in London. In 1947, he fell in love with Englishwoman Ruth Williams, and they married in 1948. This interracial marriage sparked a furor in the segregated Union of South Africa, and angered the tribal elders of Bamangwato, but the elders re-affirmed Khama as kgosi (hereditary leader) in 1949. South Africa’s apartheid regime banned the Khamas from entering South Africa, including Mafikeng which then operated as the administrative capital of Bechuanaland, and pressured the UK to have Khama removed from his chieftainship. Britain, heavily in debt from WWII, could not afford to lose cheap South African gold and uranium supplies. A British judicial inquiry into Khama’s fitness for the chieftainship reported he was eminently fit to rule the Bamangwato, “but for his unfortunate marriage.” Britain exiled Khama and his wife from Bechuanaland in 1951. There were protests, but the British High Commission ordered the Bamangwato to replace Khama. They refused to comply. In 1956, Khama and his wife were allowed to return to Bechuanaland as private citizens, after he renounced the tribal throne. He was elected to the tribal council in 1957 as its secretary. In 1961, he founded the Bechuanaland Democratic Party, and the new party dominated the 1965 elections. As Prime Minister of Bechuanaland, Khama continued to push for Botswana’s independence, in the newly established capital of Gaborone. A 1965 constitution delineated a new Botswana government. In September 1966, Botswana gained its independence. Per the new constitution, Khama automatically became its first President. In 1966, Botswana was the world’s third-poorest country, but between 1960 and 1980, Botswana had the fastest-growing economy in the world. Khama died, still in office, from pancreatic cancer in 1980 at age 59



1921 – Michalina Wisłocka born, Polish gynecologist, sexologist, and author of Sztuka kochania (The Art of Loving, published in English as A Practical Guide to Marital Bliss in 1978), the first guide to sexual intimacy published in a Communist country. Wisłocka was a co-founder of the Society of Sensible Maternity, and worked on infertility treatment and birth control.



1930 – Carol Chomsky born, American linguist and education specialist, noted for her studies of language acquisition in children; married to Noam Chomsky



1934 – Jean Marsh born, British actor and writer; co-creator and star of the BBC television series Upstairs, Downstairs (1971-1975)



1940 – Ela Gandhi born, South African peace activist; Member of the South African  Parliament (1994-2004) aligned with the ANC (African National Congress); granddaughter of Mahatma Gandhi



1941 – Twyla Tharp born, American dancer-choreographer



1943 – “Pay-as-you-go” income tax withholding from U.S. paychecks begins

1945 – Deborah Harry, American singer with Blondie; she said she was inspired by Elton John to become involved with charities, especially those in fighting cancer and endometriosis

1946 – Mireya Moscoso born, the first woman elected as President of Panama



1951 – Julia Goodfellow born, English physicist and academic; first woman president of the academic organization,  Universities UK (2015-2017). In 2011, she served on both the Council for Science and Technology, and the Science and Technology Facilities Council. In 2018, she became president of the Royal Society of Biology. Noted for her work on structural studies of the corneal stroma



1955 – Lisa Scottoline born, American lawyer and author of legal thrillers and nonfiction



1959 – The U.N. World Refugee Year begins

1963 – The Beatles record “She Loves You”

1963 – U.S. Post Office introduces ZIP (Zoning Improvement Plan) Codes – U.S. Zip Code Day *

1969 – Britain’s Prince Charles invested as the Prince of Wales


Queen Elizabeth I with Charles, the new Prince of Wales

1971 – The $35 million state bond passed in 1928 to pay for building the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco is paid in full by bridge tolls

1980 – “O Canada” officially proclaimed the national anthem of Canada



1984 – The Motion Picture Association of America adds the “PG-13” rating

1987 – President Ronald Reagan nominates federal appeals court judge Robert H. Bork to the Supreme Court, but he is rejected by the Senate; Anthony Kennedy is eventually approved to take the vacant seat

1987 – The Grateful Dead release their album In The Dark

1991 – President George H.W. Bush nominates federal appeals court judge and accused sexual harasser Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court; he is confirmed by 52-48 vote, the narrowest approval margin in more than a century

1997 – A Seattle postal worker initiates National Postal Workers Day *



2000 – Vermont’s civil unions law goes into effect, granting same-sex couples most of the rights, benefits and responsibilities of marriage

2006 – China opens Qinghai-Tibet Railway, the world’s highest railway



2013 – Croatia becomes the 28th member of the European Union

2014 – Vice Admiral Michelle J. Howard is promoted to 4-star Admiral, the first woman to achieve the U.S. Navy’s highest rank.



2016 – California Governor Jerry Brown signed into law six new gun control measures, including measures prohibiting possession of magazines that can hold more than 10 rounds of ammunition, and banning semiautomatic weapons with “bullet buttons,” a feature that facilitates speedy reloading

2019 – Several high-profile Democrats who toured migrant detention facilities in Texas called for firing Customs and Border Patrol agents who reportedly joked about migrant deaths in a secret Facebook group. The Congressional Hispanic Caucus, led by Rep. Joaquin Castro (D-Texas), also condemned vulgar images agents allegedly posted of Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-N.Y.) and called for a full investigation by the Department of Homeland Security. The lawmakers described conditions in the detention centers as “appalling,” particularly for migrant women. Ocasio-Cortez said that she saw Customs and Border Protection officers telling migrant women to drink water out of the toilets, and said that one woman told her that officers would wake them at odd hours and call them “whores.” Rep. Judy Chu (D-Calif.) corroborated this account, and said “changes must be made.”


 Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Judy Chu

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About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 50 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband.
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