ON THIS DAY: October 2, 2020

October 2nd is

Custodial Workers Day

Fried Scallops Day

Guardian Angels Day *

Name Your Car Day

World Farm Animals Day *

International Day of Non-Violence *


MORE! Elizabeth Montagu, Nat Turner and Joan Baez, click



Guinea – Independence Day

Honduras – Semana Morazánica
(Day 2 – honors Francisco Morazán *)

India – Gandhi Jayanti
(Mahatma Gandhi’s Birthday)

Indonesia – Batik Day

Italy – Grandparents Day


On This Day in HISTORY

829 – Theophilos becomes Emperor of the Byzantine Empire (829-842); second emperor of the Amorian dynasty and the last emperor who opposed religious icons (iconoclasm). He led his armies in wars against the Arabs in Anatolia and Cilicia (now southeastern coast of Turkey), but was forced to sue for peace when he was defeated in Cappadocia (now part of northern Turkey)  

945 – The kingdom of Min, in what is now the mountainous region of China’s Fujian province, is conquered and annexed by Southern Tang (937-976), which came after the fall of the Tang Dynasty, during the Ten Kingdoms period

1187 – Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule, as Balian of Ibelin surrenders the keys to the Tower of David; Saladin accepts ransom for seven thousand of the inhabitants, who march away in three columns, preventing the kind of bloodbath that the Crusaders had let loose when they first captured the city in 1099; those unable to pay the ransom are enslaved

Balian of Ibelin surrenders city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, c. 1490

1452 – Richard III born, last Plantagenet king of England

1470 – Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, England’s richest and most powerful peer of the age, falls out with King Edward IV of England over foreign policy and the king’s choice of Elizabeth Woodville as his wife. Warwick leads a rebellion, forcing Edward to flee to the Netherlands, and restoring Henry VI to the throne, but just over six months later, Warwick is killed fighting Edward’s men at the Battle of Barnet

1470 – Isabella of Naples born, ‘unique in misfortune’ – Duchess consort of Milan (1489-1494) and Duchess of Bari (1500-1524). In 1489, she married her cousin, Gian Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan, when she was 18 and he was 19, after being betrothed since she was 9 years old. Unfortunately, Gian’s uncle, Ludivico Sforza, was regent during his nephew’s minority, but never relinquished his power, and denied not only Gian his birthright, but also Isabella and Gian’s son, Francesco. He treated his own son, Massimiliano, as the heir, keeping Isabella and Gian virtual prisoners. Wars between the Italian city-states and the French, with intervention by the Swiss, and later invasion by the Spanish, further complicated matters. Gian Galeazzo Sforza died in captivity, in 1494, at age 25. Ludovico usurped the title, but was toppled from power by Louis XII of France, and Isabella petitioned Louis to name her son the Duke of Bari, one of the titles which belonged to the Milanese family. Louis responded by taking her 8-year-old son to France, assuring Isabella that he planned to marry him to his daughter, but instead, he put Francesco in a monastery. She never saw her son again. She was granted the title of suo jure (in her own right) Duchess of Bari, which Louis had denied her son. She ruled in Bari (a city on the Adriatic Sea in southern Italy), enlarging the castle, enhancing its defenses, and keeping a sharp eye on public officials, which limited their notorious corruption, and prevented them from plotting against her. She also formed a court which became a center of the arts and literature. Her daughter Ippolita died at the age of eight, and Isabella dedicated herself to her sole surviving child, Bona, who was given an advanced education, including lessons in statecraft, and became the second wife of the much older Sigismund, King of Poland. Isabella died at age 53 in 1524.

Probable painting of Isabella, Duchess of Milan, by Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio

1528 – William Tyndale, renowned English Reformer and Bible translator published his famous work The Obedience of a Christian Man

1535 – Jacques Cartier is the first European to see what will be Montreal

1552 – Russo-Kazan Wars: The Siege of Kazan by the Muscovite army under Ivan the Terrible is the final battle of the war, as the Russians blow up part of the city’s walls, then destroy most of the Tatar buildings, including mosques, release Russian prisoners of war, and massacre hundreds of  Kazan Tatars

1615 – Pope Paul V adds a Feast Day for Guardian Angels * to the Roman calendar

1718 – Elizabeth Montagu born, English reformer, “Queen of the Blues” (Bluestockings, literary intellectuals) who was celebrated for her literary salon which included Samuel Johnson, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Edmund Burke, Elizabeth Carter, David Garrick, Fanny Burney, and Sarah Fielding and Horace Walpole. She was also a patron of the arts, up-and-coming writers in particular. In 1760, she wrote and contributed anonymously three sections to Dialogues of the Dead, and in 1769, published under her name An Essay on the Writings and Genius of Shakespear. When her much older husband died in 1775, she inherited his substantial fortune, and the following year, adopted her orphaned nephew Matthew Robinson, making him her heir. She devoted much of her wealth to fostering British literature and relief for the poor, especially the workers in the Newcastle coal mines which were an important source of the Montagu fortune. A collection of her letters was published posthumously, many of them written to her sister, Sarah Scott, who was novelist and translator 

1755 – Hannah Adams born, American author of books on comparative religion and early U.S. history, first woman in America to make writing her profession: A View of Religion; A Summary History of New England; The History of the Jews; and Letters on the Gospels 

Hannah Adams, by Chester Harding, 1827

1780 – British Major John André is hanged as a spy for trying to help Benedict Arnold turn over West Point to the British forces

1789 – George Washington sends proposed Constitutional amendments (the Bill of Rights) to the States for ratification

1792 – Francisco Morazán * born, Honduran politician and statesman; attempted with others to form the Central American countries of Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador into one nation, the Federal Republic of Central America, under a federalist government similar to the U.S. in 1789, lasting from 1824 to 1836

1792 – Cipriani Potter born, British composer, pianist and one of the first teachers at the Royal Academy of Music

1800 – Nat Turner born, American slave who led the most sustained slave rebellion in U.S. history; taught reading writing and religion as a child, he became a fiery preacher, who believed himself chosen by God to lead slaves in Virginia out of bondage; 51 white people are killed in the uprising; 56 black slaves accused of  being part of the rebellion are executed, including Nat Turner; laws are passed in the American South prohibiting teaching slaves to read or write, and tensions between North and South increase

1814 – The Disaster of Rancagua: Spanish forces under Mariano Osorio  defeat rebel Chilean forces, ending the independent Chilean Patria Vieja, and beginning the Reconquista period of Spanish rule

1835 – The Texas Revolution is started by local militia fighting with Mexican soldiers at the Battle of Gonzales

1846 – Eliza Maria Mosher born, U.S. physician, educator and lecturer; taught at Vassar College and the University of Michigan, where she became Dean of Women (1896-1902); founder of the American Posture League, re-designing chairs for streetcars and kindergarten classrooms

1847 – Paul von Hindenburg born, German military officer and politician; elected President of Germany in 1925; appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of a “Government of National Concentration” in 1933

1851 – Ferdinand Foch born, WWI French general and later Marshal of France; became Allied Commander-in-Chief in 1918

1852 – Sir William Ramsay born, British chemist whose discovery of the noble gases earned him the 1904 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with his collaborator Lord Rayleigh

1869 – Mahatma Gandhi born as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Indian nationalist leader whose philosophy of nonviolence influenced movements around the world

1869 – Thakkar Bapa born as Amritial Vithaldas Thakkar, Indian social worker who spent 35 years of his life in service of tribal people and harijans ( people of Hari/Vishnu –“untouchables”) traveling forests in Assam, rural Bengal, drought affected areas of Orissa, Bhil belts in Gujarat and Harijan areas of Saurashtra, Mahar areas of Maharashtra, untouchables in Madras, hilly areas of Chhota Nagpur, desert of Tharparkar, foothills of Himalaya, coastal areas of Travancore; member of the Servants of India Society founded by Gopal Krishna Gokhale in 1914, and was general secretary of the  Harijan Sevak Sangh founded by Mahatma Gandhi in 1932

1871 – Martha Brookes Hutcheson born, American landscape architect; enrolled in the first course offered by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Landscape Architecture, but had to leave after two years of study; designed the grounds for a number of residential estates, including the garden at Alice Mary Longfellow’s Cambridge MA home; after marriage, she retired from commercial practice, but landscaped her five acre garden at their 100 acre farm in New Jersey, now a NJ Historic Trust property, the Bamboo Brook Education Center; third woman named a fellow of the American Society of Landscape Architects; author of The Spirit of the Garden (1923)

1875 – Pattie Ruffner Jacobs born, American suffragist and progressive reformer; founded the Birmingham Equal Suffrage Association in 1910, and the Alabama Equal Suffrage Association in 1911. In 1913, Jacobs spoke on behalf of Southern women’s suffragists at the Annual Convention of the National Woman Suffrage Association in Washington DC. She  became an officer in the National Equal Suffrage Association in 1915. After passage of the 19th Amendment, Jacobs led the transition of her local organizations into Leagues of Women Voters. She also became national secretary for the National League of Women Voters. She campaigned for ending prostitution and child labor, and she was an active member of the Jefferson County Anti-Tuberculosis Association. In 1933, she was the first woman appointed to the Democratic National Committee from Alabama, a position she held until her death at age 60 in 1935.

1879 – Wallace Stevens born, American Modernist poet and insurance executive; 1955 Pulitzer Prize for Poetry for Collected Poems

1885 – Ruth Bryan Owen born, author and politician; first southern woman representative to the US Congress (D-FL 1929-1933); first woman on the House Foreign Affairs Committee; first woman appointed as a US Ambassador (1933-1936, Denmark)

1889 – Nicholas Creede strikes silver in Colorado, the last major silver strike of the Colorado Silver Boom

1889 – Margaret Chung born in the U.S. to Chinese immigrant parents, the oldest of 11 children. She was the first Chinese heritage woman medical student at the University of Southern California Medical School, graduating in 1916. She completed her internship and residency in Illinois, becoming the first known American woman physician of Chinese descent. She started her practice in San Francisco in 1922, then founded one of the first Western medical clinics in San Francisco’s Chinatown. Some of her patients came from outside Chinatown, including U.S. Navy reserve pilots, and other naval officers, whom she not only treated, but also fed, becoming their “Mom Chung.” She gave them jade Buddhas to wear around their necks, and during WWII, pilots wearing them would recognize each other as “Mom Chung’s adopted sons.” When Japan invaded China in 1937, Chung volunteered as a front-line surgeon, but was also secretly assigned to recruit pilots for the American volunteers, known as the “Flying Tigers.” Her houseguests included high ranking officers, U.S. senators and congressmen; leaning on these connections, she helped establish the Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service, although she was not permitted to join them, because the FBI suspected that she was a lesbian. Mom Chung adopted the entire VF-2 squadron, nicknamed “The Rippers” for their logo, a Chinese dragon ripping a flag. Chung retired from practice in the mid-1950s, and her “adopted sons” bought a house for her in Marin County, north of San Francisco. She died of cancer in 1959. Admiral Chester W. Nimitz was one of her pallbearers

1890 – Groucho Marx born as Julius Henry Marx, most successful of the Marx Brothers; after Broadway hits in The Cocoanuts and Animal Crackers, which were also his first movies, and hosting the radio comedy quiz show You Bet Your Life (later revived on television), he and his brothers made a dozen classic comedy films for Hollywood

1895 – Ruth Cheney Streeter born, first director of the United States Marine Corps Women’s Reserve, and first woman to become a major in the USMC.In 1942, at the age of 47, she earned a commercial pilot’s license, hoping to serve in the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASPS) as a ferry pilot, but the WASPS rejected her five times because of her age. In 1943, she was commissioned as a major and appointed director of the United States Marine Corps Women’s Reserve. Streeter was in office on the official creation date of MCWR on February 13, 1943, and it grew to a total of 831 officers and 17,714 enlisted before she retired in 1945 as a lieutenant colonel. Om 1946, she was awarded the Legion of Merit, for “. . . distinctive service in directing the planning and organization of the Women’s Reserve of the Marine Corps and skillfully integrating women into the basic structure of the Corps . . .”

1901 – Charles Stark Draper born, American scientist and aeronautical engineer; founder-director of  MIT’s Instrumentation Laboratory, awarded the first contract for the Apollo program, to develop the Apollo Guidance Computer to control navigation and guidance for the Lunar Excursion Module

1904 – Graham Greene born, English novelist, who achieved both literary acclaim and widespread popularity; The Power and the GloryThe Quiet AmericanThe Comedians, Our Man in Havana, and the screenplay for the film The Third Man

1919 – President Woodrow Wilson suffers a major stroke, which partially paralyzes him

1925 – John Logie Baird performs the first test of a working  television system

1926 – Jan Morris born James Humphrey Morris, Welsh  historian, author and travel writer; known particularly for the Pax Britannica trilogy (1968–1978), a history of the British Empire, and for portraits of cities, notably Oxford, Venice, Hong Kong, and New York City. A trans woman, she published under her birth name until 1972, when she transitioned from a male to a female identity

1928 – Spanish Catholic priest Josemaria Escrivá founds Opus Dei (Praelatura Sanctae Crucis et Operis Dei/The Prelature of the Holy Cross and Work of God)

1929 – Kenneth Leighton born, British composer/pianist, also taught at the University of Edinburgh and was Fellow of  Music of Worcester College, Oxford

1929 – Tanaquil La Clercq born, principal dancer with the New York City Ballet until she contracted polio while on tour in Copenhagen in 1956, which paralyzed her from the waist down; she later taught ballet and wrote Mourka: The Autobiography of a Cat and The Ballet Cook Book

1932 – Constitutionalist Revolution in Brazil: The São Paulo rebels are defeated, outnumbered over 2 to 1 by the armed forces sent to put down their rebellion. The revolt began in July, 1932, against the Presidency of Getúlio Vargas, forcibly imposed by a coup d’état in 1930, after Júlio Prestes had won the election. Prestes was born in the state of São Paulo, and was its most recent President (1927-1930) before the coup. The rebels were demanding that the Vargas regime adopt and abide by a new Constitution, a non-military interim state governor be appointed, and election of a Constituent Assembly. They had expected other states like Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul to join them, but no support was forthcoming

1937 – Dominican Republic dictator Raphael Trujillo orders the execution of all the Haitians living within the borderlands; 20,000 Haitians killed over 5 days

1939 – The Benny Goodman Sextet records “Flying Home”

1941 – Diana Hendry born, English poet, children’s author and short story writer; won the 1991 Whitbread Award for best children’s book for Harvey Angell

1943 – Anna Ford born, English journalist and television news reader who worked for for Granada TV (1974-1977), ITN (1978-1981) and the BBC (1977-1978 and 1986-2006); she helped launch TV-am, the first British breakfast television programme (1981)

1944 – WWII: German troops end the Warsaw Uprising under the Polish resistance Home Army, the largest military effort by a resistance group of the war; exact figures are unknown, but an estimated 16,000 members of the Polish resistance are killed and some 6,000 badly wounded, and between 150,000 and 200,000 Polish civilians die, mostly in mass executions. Jews harbored by Poles are exposed by German house-to-house clearances and mass evictions of entire neighborhoods. The Soviet Red Army was expected to aid the Poles, but halted just outside the city, ignoring Polish attempts at radio contact

1949 – Annie Leibovitz born, American portrait photographer; first woman to have an exhibition at Washington’s National Portrait Gallery (1991)

1950 – Peanuts by Charles M. Schultz is first published

1955 – Dame Nancy Rothwell born, British physiologist, President and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Manchester since 2010; one of the directors of AstraZeneca, the pharmaceuticals company; co-chair of the Council for Science and Technology; noted for research on Brown adipose tissue and Cytokines; Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire since 2005

1959 – Rod Serling’s The Twilight Zone debuts on CBS-TV

1961 – Joan Baez releases “Banks of the Ohio”

1967 – Thurgood Marshall is sworn in as the first black United States Supreme Court Justice

1968 – Tlatelolco massacre: In Mexico City, dozens of student protesters are killed as government troops fire upon them in the Plaza de los Tres Culturas, and over 1300 people are arrested. Government documents made public since 2000 suggest that snipers had been employed by the government, which contradicts the claim at the time that the protesters had provoked the massacre by shooting at the police and military forces. This was less than two weeks before the opening ceremonies of the Summer Olympics in Mexico City, and the government had been cracking down on all political opposition, not only from students, but from labor unions, and farmers as well, after investing massively (the estimated amount is roughly equal to $1 billion USD today) in preparations for the games

1968 – Victoria Derbyshire born, English journalist and broadcaster; her current affairs and debate programme has been on BBC Two and the BBC News Channel since 2015

1971 – The Natal Indian Congress (NIC), which had been founded by Mahatma Gandhi in 1894 to fight discrimination against Indians living in Natal, had fallen into a long period of inactivity after being banned along with the ANC and the Transvaal Indian Congress, but was now revived by activist Mewa Ramgobin. Press in Natal was reporting that the Grey Street area of Durban might be declared as an Indian commercial zone, imposing more government control over the livelihoods of the Indian community

1972 – Danish voters decide in favor of European Common Market membership

1973 – Melissa Harris-Perry born, American writer, academic, and political commentator with a focus on African-American politics; host of the Melissa Harris-Perry show on MSNBC (2012-2016); she taught political science at the University of Chicago (1999-2006); Associate Professor of political science and African-American studies at Princeton (2006-2011), leaving when she was denied a full professorship; Founding Director of the Anna Julia Cooper Project, a center for study of Southern race, gender and politics, at Tulane University (2011-2014); regular columnist for The Nation magazine; author of Sister Citizen: Shame, Stereotypes, and Black Women in America

1973 – Maria Wetterstrand born, Swedish Green Party politician and Spokesperson (2002-2011) with Peter Eriksson, Member of the Riksdag (Sweden’s parliament, 2001-2011)

1979 – Pope John Paul II denounces all concentration camps and torture in a speech at the United Nations

1980 – Michael Myers (D-PA) becomes first member of either chamber of U.S. Congress to be expelled since the Civil War, because of the Abscam scandal

1982 – The Portland Building, designed by Michael Graves, opens in Portland OR

1983 – The first World Farm Animals Day * to advocate against cruelty to animals raised for food

1990 – The last song of Radio Berlin International’s final transmission is “The End” by the Doors; the following day, the official dissolution of East Germany and the reunification of the German state are formally concluded, less than four months after East German military units began dismantling the Berlin Wall

1996 – President Clinton signs Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments

2000 – The International Space Station’s first residents, an American astronaut and two Russian cosmonauts, arrive aboard a Russian Soyuz capsule for a four-month stay

2003 – South African author J.M. Coetzee is honored with the Nobel Prize for Literature. The only other South African to win the Nobel for Literature was Nadine Gordimer in 1991

2007 – The U.N. General Assembly passes a resolution establishing October 2, the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, as the International Day of Non-Violence *

2010 – The modern-day version of the ancient religion of Druidry, which is more New Age than Iron Age, is officially recognised for first time in the United Kingdom

Druid Order Spring Equinox Ceremony Tower Hill 2010

2015 – India ratified the Paris global climate control agreement, committing the world’s third largest greenhouse gas emitter to generating at least 40 percent of its electricity from non-fossil fuels by 2030. The Paris accord, the world’s first comprehensive climate agreement, was agreed to by nearly 200 countries last December. It aims to reduce CO2 emissions, widely considered to be a driving force of human-caused climate change, but will only take effect if at least 55 countries producing a combined 55 percent or more of the world’s carbon emissions sign on. The European Union is expected to wrap up joint ratification of the pact by mid-October, putting the deal over the 55 percent threshold

2019 – In the UK, Diane Abbott, Labour MP, represented her party at the prime minister’s questions, a first for a minority ethnic parliamentarian, standing in for Jeremy Corbyn, the shadow home secretary. Emily Thornberry, who had been Corbyn’s regular stand-in, was dropped after her fierce criticism of Labour’s campaign during the European elections in May. In announcing Abbott’s appearance, Corbyn highlighted that October is Black History Month in Great Britain


About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for over 50 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband.
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