ON THIS DAY: October 2, 2017

October 2nd is

Custodial Workers Day

Fried Scallops Day

Guardian Angels Day *

Name Your Car Day

World Farm Animals Day *

U.N. World Habitat Day *

International Day of Non-Violence *

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MORE! Gandhi, Joan Baez and Thurgood Marshall, click

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WORLD FESTIVALS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

Australia – Capital Territory (ACT),  New South Wales
and South Australia: Labour Day

Christmas Island – Territory Day

Falkland Islands – Peat Cutting Day
(Spring holiday)

Guinea – Independence Day

Honduras – Semana Morazánica
(week honoring Francisco Morazán *)

India – Mahatma Gandhi’s Birthday

Paraguay – Battle of Boquerón

Santa Lucia – Thanksgiving Day

South Korea – Chuseok
(Harvest Moon Festival)

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On This Day in HISTORY

1187 – Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule, as Balian of Ibelin surrenders the keys to the Tower of David; Saladin accepts ransom for seven thousand of the inhabitants, who march away in three columns, preventing the kind of bloodbath that the Crusaders had let loose when they first captured the city in 1099; those unable to pay the ransom are enslaved


Balian of Ibelin surrenders city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, c. 1490


1452 – Richard III born, last Plantagenet king of England

1470 – Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, England’s richest and most powerful peer of the age, falls out with King Edward IV of England over foreign policy and the king’s choice of Elizabeth Woodville as his wife. Warwick leads a rebellion, forcing Edward to flee to the Netherlands, and restoring Henry VI to the throne, but just over six months later, Warwick is killed fighting Edward’s men at the Battle of Barnet



1528 – William Tyndale, renowned English Reformer and Bible translator published his famous work The Obedience of a Christian Man

1535 – Jacques Cartier is the first European to see what will be Montreal

1552 – Russo-Kazan Wars: The Siege of Kazan by the Muscovite army under Ivan the Terrible is the final battle of the war, as the Russians blow up part of the city’s walls, then destroy most of the Tatar buildings, including mosques, release Russian prisoners of war, and massacre hundreds of  Kazan Tatars

1615 – Pope Paul V adds a Feast Day for Guardian Angels * to the Roman calendar

1755 – Hannah Adams born, American author of books on comparative religion and early U.S. history, first woman in America to make writing her profession; A View of Religion, A Summary History of New England, The History of the Jews, Letters on the Gospels 

1780 – British Major John André is hanged as a spy for trying to help Benedict Arnold turn over West Point to the British forces

1789 – George Washington sends proposed Constitutional amendments (the Bill of Rights) to the States for ratification

1792 – Francisco Morazán * born, Honduran politician and statesman; attempted with others to form the Central American countries of Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador into one nation, the Federal Republic of Central America, under a federalist government similar to the U.S. in 1789, lasting from 1824 to 1836

1792 – Cipriani Potter born, British composer, pianist and one of the first teachers at the Royal Academy of Music


1800 – Nat Turner born, American slave who led the most sustained slave rebellion in U.S. history; taught reading writing and religion as a child, he became a fiery preacher, who believed himself chosen by God to lead slaves in Virginia out of bondage; 51 white people are killed in the uprising; 56 black slaves accused of  being part of the rebellion are executed, including Nat Turner; laws are passed in the American South prohibiting teaching slaves to read or write, and tensions between North and South increase

1814 – The Disaster of Rancagua: Spanish forces under Mariano Osorio defeat rebel Chilean forces, ending the independent Chilean Patria Vieja, and beginning the Reconquista period of Spanish rule

1835 – The Texas Revolution is started by local militia fighting with Mexican soldiers at the Battle of Gonzales

1846 – Eliza Maria Mosher born, U.S. physician, educator and lecturer; taught at Vassar College and the University of Michigan, where she became Dean of Women (1896-1902); founder of the American Posture League, re-designing chairs for streetcars and kindergarten classrooms

1847 – Paul von Hindenburg born, German military officer and politician; elected President of Germany in 1925; appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of a “Government of National Concentration” in 1933

1851 – Ferdinand Foch born, WWI French general and later Marshal of France; became Allied Commander-in-Chief in 1918

1852 – Sir William Ramsay born, British chemist whose discovery of the noble gases earned him the 1904 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with his collaborator Lord Rayleigh



1869 – Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi born, Indian nationalist leader whose philosophy of nonviolence influenced movements around the world



1871 – Martha Brookes Hutcheson born, American landscape architect; enrolled in the first course offered by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Landscape Architecture, but had to leave after two years of study; designed the grounds for a number of residential estates, including the garden at Alice Mary Longfellow’s Cambridge MA home; after marriage, she retired from commercial practice, but landscaped her five acre garden at their 100 acre farm in New Jersey, now a NJ Historic Trust property, the Bamboo Brook Education Center; third woman named a fellow of the American Society of Landscape Architects; author of The Spirit of the Garden (1923)



1879 – Wallace Stevens born, American Modernist poet and insurance executive; 1955 Pulitzer Prize for Poetry for Collected Poems



1885 – Ruth Bryan Owen born, author and politician; first southern woman representative to the US Congress (D-FL 1929-1933); first woman on the House Foreign Affairs Committee; first woman appointed as a US Ambassador (1933-36, Denmark)

1889 – Nicholas Creede strikes silver in Colorado, the last major silver strike of the Colorado Silver Boom

1890 – Groucho Marx born as Julius Henry Marx, most successful of the Marx Brothers; after Broadway hits in The Cocoanuts and Animal Crackers, which were his first movies, and hosting the radio comedy quiz show You Bet Your Life (later revived on television), he and his brothers made a dozen classic comedy films for Hollywood



1895 – Ruth Cheney Streeter born, first director of the United States Marine Corps Women’s Reserve

1901 – Charles Stark Draper born, American scientist and aeronautical engineer; founder-director of  MIT’s Instrumentation Laboratory, awarded the first contract for the Apollo program, to develop the Apollo Guidance Computer to control navigation and guidance for the Lunar Excursion Module

1904 – Graham Greene born, English novelist, who achieved both literary acclaim and widespread popularity; The Power and the Glory, The Quiet AmericanThe Comedians, Our Man in Havana, and the screenplay for the film The Third Man



1919 – President Woodrow Wilson suffers a major stroke, which partially paralyzes him

1925 – John Logie Baird performs the first test of a working television system

1926 – Jan Morris born James Humphrey Morris, Welsh historian, author and travel writer; known particularly for the Pax Britannica trilogy (1968–1978), a history of the British Empire, and for portraits of cities, notably Oxford, Venice, Hong Kong, and New York City. A trans woman, she is published under her birth name until 1972, when she transitions from a male to a female identity

1928 – Spanish Catholic priest Josemaria Escrivá founds Opus Dei (Praelatura Sanctae Crucis et Operis Dei/The Prelature of the Holy Cross and Work of God)

1929 – Kenneth Leighton born, British composer/pianist, also taught at the University of Edinburgh and was Fellow of  Music of Worcester College, Oxford



1929 – Tanaquil La Clercq born, principal dancer with the New York City Ballet until she contracted polio while on tour in Copenhagen in 1956, which paralyzed her from the waist down; she later taught ballet and wrote Mourka: The Autobiography of a Cat and The Ballet Cook Book



1937 – Dominican Republic dictator Raphael Trujillo orders the execution of all the Haitians living within the borderlands; 20,000 Haitians killed over 5 days

1939 – The Benny Goodman Sextet records “Flying Home”



1944 – WWII: German troops end the Warsaw Uprising under the Polish resistance Home Army, the largest military effort by a resistance group of the war; exact figures are unknown, but an estimated 16,000 members of the Polish resistance are killed and some 6,000 badly wounded, and between 150,000 and 200,000 Polish civilians die, mostly in mass executions. Jews harbored by Poles are exposed by German house-to-house clearances and mass evictions of entire neighborhoods. The Soviet Red Army was expected to aid the Poles, but halted just outside the city, ignoring Polish attempts at radio contact

1949 – Annie Leibovitz born, American portrait photographer; first woman to have an exhibition at Washington’s National Portrait Gallery (1991)



1950 – Peanuts by Charles M. Schultz is first published



1959 – Rod Serling’s The Twilight Zone debuts on CBS-TV



1961 – Joan Baez releases “Banks of the Ohio”



1967 – Thurgood Marshall sworn in as first black U.S. Supreme Court Justice



1972 – Danish voters decide in favor of European Common Market membership

1979 – Pope John Paul II denounces all concentration camps and torture in a speech at the United Nations

1980 – Michael Myers (D-PA) becomes first member of either chamber of U.S> Congress to be expelled since the Civil War, because of the Abscam scandal

1982 – The Portland Building, designed by Michael Graves, opens in Portland OR



1983 – The first World Farm Animals Day * to advocate against cruelty to animals raised for food

1986 – U. N. General Assembly declares first Monday in October as World Habitat Day *  to affirm that it is a human right to have a decent place to live

1990 – The last song of Radio Berlin International’s final transmission is “The End” by the Doors; the following day, the official dissolution of East Germany and the reunification of the German state are formally concluded, less than four months after East German military units began dismantling the Berlin Wall



1996 – President Clinton signs Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments

2000 – The International Space Station’s first residents, an American astronaut and two Russian cosmonauts, arrive aboard a Russian Soyuz capsule for a four-month stay

2007 – The U.N. General Assembly passes a resolution establishing October 2, the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, as the International Day of Non-Violence *

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About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 45 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband and a bewildered Border Collie.
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