ON THIS DAY: April 6, 2018

April 6th is

Army Day *

Twinkie Day *

New Beers Eve *

National Tartan Day *

National Teflon Day *

National Student Athlete Day *

International Day of Sport for Development and Peace *

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MORE! Raphael, Celestina Cordero and René Lalique, click

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WORLD FESTIVALS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

Orthodox and Coptic Christianity – Good Friday
Judaism – Last Day of Pesach (Passover)

Burundi – President Ntaryamira Day
(assassination anniversary)

Cocos Islands –
Act of Self Determination Day

Thailand – King Rama I Memorial and
Chakri Day (founding of Chakri dynasty)

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On This Day in HISTORY

46 BC – When his refusal of a senatorial order to disband his army results in civil war, Julius Caesar defeats the Republican forces against him, including Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato (Cato the Younger) in the battle of Thapsus (in today’s Tunisia) on this day

1199 – Richard I of England, the “Lionheart,” dies from an infection following the removal of an arrow from his shoulder while campaigning to reclaim Normandy


Portrait of King Richard I/his Coat of Arms inverted to symbolize his death, from Chronica Majoraby Matthew Paris (13th century)


1320 – The Declaration of Arbroath, is signed by at least 8 earls and 31 barons (11 more may have signed but the only extant copy shows only 39); it is a letter in Latin to Pope John XXII, intended to confirm Scotland’s status as a sovereign nation, and defending Scotland’s right to use military force when unjustly attacked. Scotland’s leader Robert the Bruce is excommunicated for the murder of John Comyn before the altar in Greyfrairs Abbey, and the Pope recognizes Edward I of England’s claim of overlordship of Scotland



1483 – Raphael born, Italian High Renaissance painter and architect


 

Two Cherubs (detail of the Sistine Madonna) by Rafael


1652 – Jan van Riebeeck establishes a settlement at Cape Town, South Africa

1660 – Johann Kuhnau born, German composer and music theorist



1712 –New York City Slave Revolt starts when 23 enslaved Africans kill 9 white people and injure 6 other whites. 70 Black people are arrested and jailed, of which 27 are tried, with 21 convictions and executions; new laws are passed prohibiting Africans to gather in groups of more than three; free black people not allowed to own property (property ownership being a key requirement for voting eligibility, this effectively bans blacks from voting), and a black person committing a crime ranging from rape to conspiracy to property damage, would now face the death penalty

1773 – James Mill born, Scottish philosopher, historian and economist

1787 – Celestina Cordero born, a free black Puerto Rican whose parents taught all the children in their family to read and write; founder of the first school for girls in Puerto Rico (1820), where she taught students regardless of their race or social standing; she also became a public speaker advocating public education for women, and after several years of struggle, the Spanish government acknowledged her as a teacher and accredited her school; while her contributions have been largely overlooked until recently, her brother Raphael is recognized as “The Father of Public Education” in Puerto Rico

1814 – At Fountainebleau, the French government grants Napoleon Bonaparte sovereignty over the island of Elba, a government pension, and lets him keep the title of emperor in exchange for his abdication and exile

1823 – Joseph Medill born in Canada, American editor-publisher of Chicago Tribune

1830 – Relations between Texans and Mexico reach new low when Mexico bans further emigration to Texas by U.S. settlers

1859 – Massachusetts authorizes the first Inspector of Milk position in the U.S.

1860 – René Lalique born, French jeweler, and Art Nouveau movement leader

Rene Lalique designs: Pansies brooch, glass vase, winged female brooch


1867 – Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead born in Canada, American feminist, author and obstetrician, one of the founders of the Middlesex County Hospital in Connecticut, president of the American Medical Women’s Association, author of A History of Women in Medicine: From the Earliest of Times to the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century

1869 – John Wesley Hyatt patents celluloid, the first synthetic plastic

1870 –  Clarence E. McClung born, American zoologist; study of heredity leads to his 1901 hypothesis that an extra chromosome determines sex

1875 – Alexander Graham Bell patents the multiple telegraph, which can send two signals at the same time

1878 – Abastenia St. Leger Eberle born, American sculptor, decorative work for fountains and work combining realism with the flow of movement, best known for her controversial piece The White Slave which represents child prostitution



1882 – Rose Scheiderman, born in what is now Poland, American labor union leader and organizer, feminist and suffragist, active in the Women’s Trade Union League, participant in the Uprising of 20,000



1890 – Anthony Fokker born, Dutch airman and pioneer in aircraft manufacturer

1892 – Donald Douglas born, American aircraft designer; founder Douglas Aircraft

1896 – The first modern Olympic Games open in Athens, Greece

1898 – Jeanne Hébuterne born, French artist, and frequent model for painter Amedeo Modigliani

1903 – French Army Nationalists are revealed to have forged documents to guarantee a conviction for Alfred Dryfus

1909 – Americans Robert Peary claims he and Matthew Henson are the first men to reach the North Pole

1916 – Charlie Chaplin at age 26 becomes the highest-paid film star in the world when he signs a contract with Mutual Film Corporation for $675,000 a year

1917 – Leonora Carrington born in Britain, Mexican Surrealist painter and author; founding member of the Women’s Liberation Movement in Mexico during the 1970s, designing a poster Mujeres conciencia (1973) to bring attention to the movement; received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Women’s Caucus for Art in 1986

work by Leonora Carrington, no title listed


1917 – U.S. Congress approves declaring war on Germany, enters WWI on Allied side

1925 – Eddie Cantor records “If You Knew Susie”

1927 – William P. MacCracken, Jr. is issued license number ‘1’ the first aviator’s license from the U.S. Department of Commerce

1927 – Gerry Mulligan born, American baritone saxophonist, arranger and composer



1930 – Twinkie Day *- Hostess Twinkies go on sale for the first time

1931 – Little Orphan Annie debuts on the radio

1933 – New Beers Eve * the night before the sale of beer becomes legal again in the U.S. the Cullen-Harrison Act goes into effect, redefining what an “intoxicating beverage” is to exclude beer from Prohibition – full repeal of Prohibition didn’t happen until the December 5, 1933  ratification of the 21 Amendment, repealing the 18th Amendment

1936 – Helen Berman born in the Netherlands, Israeli visual artist and textile designer

1938 – National Teflon Day * honors the accidental invention of Teflon by Dr. Roy Plunkett while searching for a substance to coat his scientific hand tools

1941 – German forces invade Greece and Yugoslavia

1942 – Franklin Roosevelt proclaims April 6 as first Army Day * calling for civilian support of America’s armed forces: “. . . Our Army is a mighty arm of the tree of liberty. It is a living part of the American tradition, a tradition that goes back to Israel Putnam, who left his plow in a New England furrow to take up a gun and fight at Bunker Hill. In this tradition American men of many ages have always left the pacific round of their usual occupations to fight in causes that were worth their lives – from Lexington to the Argonne . . .”



1949 –Alyson J. Bailes born, British political scientist and diplomat; her varied career in the UK Foreign service was greatly helped by her extensive knowledge of languages, speaking and reading French, Hungarian, German, Mandarin Chinese, Norwegian, Finnish and Swedish, with some understanding of Danish, Icelandic, Faroese and Dutch; UK Ambassador to Finland (2000-2002); after retiring, she took a post at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (2002-2007)

1953 – Iranian Premier Mossadegh demands that the shah’s power be reduced

1954 – C.A. Swanson & Sons introduce the first TV dinner: roast turkey with stuffing and gravy, sweet potatoes and peas, selling for 98 cents and came in an aluminum tray, so you could just open the box and heat the dinner in the oven (microwave-safe meals are introduced in 1986)

1959 – Hal Holbrook opens off-Broadway in his one-man show “Mark Twain Tonight”



1962 – Iris Häussler born in Germany, Canadian conceptual and installation artist

1965 – U.S. President L.B. Johnson authorized using ground troops in combat operations in Vietnam

1981 – A Yugoslav Communist Party official confirms reports of ethnic riots in Kosovo

1982 – National Tartan Day * After an ad hoc event in New York City, Canadians of Scottish descent popularize celebrating Scottish heritage on the anniversary of the date the Declaration of Arbroath was signed in 1320

1983 – U.S. Interior Secretary James Watt bans the Beach Boys from the 4th of July celebration on the Washington Mall, saying rock ‘n’ roll bands attract the “wrong element”

1983 – The U.S. Veteran’s Administration announces it will give free medical care for conditions traceable to radiation exposure to more than 220,000 veterans who participated in nuclear tests from 1945 to 1962

1985 – William J. Schroeder is the first artificial heart recipient to be discharged from the hospital

1988 – Mathew Henson was awarded honors in Arlington National Cemetery, for being with Robert Peary on the expedition in search of the North Pole

1998 – Citicorp and Travelers Group announced that they will merge, creating Citigroup, the largest financial-services conglomerate in the world

1998 – Federal researchers in the U.S. announce that daily tamoxifen pills could cut breast cancer risk among high-risk women

1998 – Pakistan successfully tests medium-range missiles capable of attacking neighboring India

2008 – The first official National Student Athlete Day * created by the National Consortium for Academics and Sports (NCAS)

2016 – First International Day of Sport for Development and Peace * part of UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, comes into force this day


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About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 45 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband and a bewildered Border Collie.
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