ON THIS DAY: April 21, 2018

April 21st is

Bulldogs are Beautiful Day

Kindergarten Day *

Chocolate-Covered Cashews Day

National Yellow Bat Day *

John Muir Day *

World Creativity and Innovation Day *

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MORE! Friedrich Frobel, Charlotte Brontë and John Muir, click

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WORLD FESTIVALS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

 Bahá’i – First of 12 days of Ridván: celebration of Bahaullah Declaration that he is a Manifestation of God)

Rastafari – Grounation Day: Haile Selassie visits Jamaica, arriving on April 21, 1966 

Brazil – Tiradentes Day
(Joaquim da Silva Xavier/independence hero)

Falkland Islands – Queen’s Birthday (actual day)

Indonesia – Kartini Day
(Raden Ayu Kartini, women’s rights pioneer)

Kenya – National Tree Planting Day

United States – Texas: San Jacinto Day
(1836 Texas Independence battle)

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On This Day in HISTORY

753 BC (traditional date) Romulus founds the city of Rome, makes a sacrifice to the gods and begins fortifying the Palatine, the most central of Rome’s Seven Hills


Ruins on top of Palatine Hill in Rome


900 – The Laguna Copperplate Inscription (the earliest known written document found in what is now the Philippines): ‘the Commander-in-Chief of the Kingdom of Tondo, as represented by the Honourable Jayadewa, Lord Minister of Pailah, pardons from all debt the Honourable Namwaran and his relations’

1092 – The Diocese of Pisa is elevated to the rank of metropolitan archdiocese  by Pope Urban II

1506 – The three-day Lisbon Massacre comes to an end after the slaughter of over 1,900 suspected Jews by Portuguese Catholics

1509 – Henry VIII becomes king of England



1649 – The Maryland Toleration Act, providing freedom of worship for all Christians, was passed by the Maryland assembly

1782 – Rattanakosin, now known internationally as Bangkok, is founded on the eastern bank of the Chao Phraya River by King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke

1782 – Friedrich Wilhelm Frobel born, German teacher credited with starting the first Kindergarten in 1837; celebrated as Kindergarten Day *



1792 –Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, called ‘Tiradentes,’ revolutionary leader of Brazil’s independence movement, is hanged, drawn and quartered by the Portuguese, after a trial lasting almost three years; now Tiradentes Day * in Brazil

1814 – Baroness Angela Burdett-Coutts born, “the richest heiress in England” was a philanthropist who spent the majority of her wealth on scholarships, endowments and such projects as Urania Cottage, a home to reform young women who had turned to theft or prostitution, which she co-founded with Charles Dickens; improving conditions among the poor, both in England and abroad; she paid for the famous statue of Greyfriars Bobby, and was a notable supporter of the both Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, and the Church of England

1816 – Charlotte Brontë born, English novelist and poet, eldest of the three Brontë sisters who were authors; author of Jane Eyre



1836 – The Battle of San Jacinto: Republic of Texas forces under Sam Houston defeat troops under Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna

1838 – John Muir born in Scotland, American naturalist, glaciologist, environmental philosopher, author and advocate for wilderness preservation (see also 1988 entry)

1856 – Stonemasons and building workers on building sites around Melbourne march from the University of Melbourne to Parliament House to achieve an eight-hour day

1859 – Belle Case LaFollette born, American lawyer, suffragist and women’s rights activist primarily in Wisconsin

1863 –  Bahá’u’lláh, the founder of the Bahá’í Faith, declares his mission as “He whom God shall make manifest”

1879 – Raden Ayu Kartini born, Javanese and Indonesian national heroine, women’s rights activist, pioneer in education for women and girls



1891 – Georgia Harkness born, American Christian theologian, first woman to become a full professor in a United States theological seminary, leader in the ecumenical movement and the movement to gain ordination for women in American Methodism

1899 – Randall Thompson born, American composer of choral works



1912 – Eve C. Arnold born, American photojournalist; documented migrant workers, South African Apartheid protesters, disabled Vietnam veterans and Mongolian herdsmen; also photographed iconic figures from Marilyn Monroe to Malcolm X to Queen Elizabeth II, including a series of portraits of American First Ladies


Marilyn Monroe on The Misfits set, 1954 Bar girl in brothel, and Eve Arnold


1916 – Estella Diggs born, American businesswoman, author and politician

1925 – The Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals is published in Il Mondo, establishing the political and ideological foundations of Italian Fascism.

1926 – Elizabeth II, Queen regnant of The United Kingdom and head of the Commonwealth of Nations, is born

1930 – Hilda Hilst born, Brazilian author, poet, and playwright

1932 – Elaine May born, American actress, director, and screenwriter, two time Academy Award nominee and recipient of the National Medal of Arts



1944 – The French provisional government gives the vote to Frenchwomen

1952 – BOAC begins passenger service on jet aircraft on their London-Rome route

1960 – Brasília, Brazil’s capital, is officially inaugurated. At 09:30, the Three Powers of the Republic are simultaneously transferred from the old capital, Rio de Janeiro

1962 – The Seattle World’s Fair opens, the first World’s Fair in the U.S. since WWII

1967 – National Yellow Bat Day * commemorates the activation of the 265thArmy Security Agency at Fort Campbell KY, part of the 101st Airborne; their insignia is a bat on a yellow ground symbolizing their motto “Through the Night”



1969 – Simon & Garfunkel’s single “The Boxer” is released



1977 – The musical Annie opens on Broadway

1988 – John Muir Day * proclaimed on the 150th anniversary of his birth (see also 1838 entry)



2001 – World Creativity and Innovation Day * is launched as the culmination of World Creativity and Innovation Week, which begins April 15 (Leonardo da Vinci’s birthday) with World Art Day



2008 – The U.S. Air Force announces it is retiring the F-117 Nighthawk, which first saw combat in 1989, but the process has been gradual

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About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 45 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband and a bewildered Border Collie.
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5 Responses to ON THIS DAY: April 21, 2018

  1. Terry Welshans says:

    The Lockheed F-117A was an innovative design that was able to penetrate the radar systems of its day through a combination of reflective surfaces that were angled and covered in an absorbent material that reflected little return to the radar receiver. In 1991 F-117A aircraft flew over Baghdad in the opening night of the Gulf War with immunity, dropping guided munitions that disrupted the Iraqi command and control centers, without loss. Today’s technology has improved the stealthiness of fighter and bomber aircraft and cruise missiles to the point that the F-117A has become obsolete. I hate to see this pioneer go, but they will live on in museums.

    • During the first Gulf war, they discovered it could be detected by…..cell phone towers. It affected cell signals when flying near towers, allowing triangulation. Not as accurate as radar, but if the signal disruptions were detected, it was a kind of early warning system.

      There has been an electronic arms race since WW2. The Luftwaffe bombed a Chain Home tower, but the Brits anticipated that and had a replacement up in a matter of hours. At the time, the Germans had little understanding about what it was, so did not understand the importance.

      • Terry Welshans says:

        A little touch of ‘irony’ from Japan. The Japanese had relatively poor radar and it was not found on large ships until very late in the war. They did have radar at their larger airports. The ‘irony’ is that the airport radar was disrupted by the steel structure of a nearby bridge. They developed a paint containing small particles of iron that scattered the radar waves while absorbing some of it. It worked! After the war, the US and British technology teams that exploited the Japanese military discovered the special ‘iron ball’ paint. That paint, modernized and perfected, was applied to the U-2, A-12, SR-71, and the F-117. A more refined version was used on the B-2 and most current 5th generation stealth fighters.

        • Speaking of which, I like these photos, and especially the first comment.

          • Terry Welshans says:

            Contrails are a giveaway. Stealth is not invisibility, just a reduction in detectability. It works only for a specific spectrum and aspect. You have to do the best you can against the most probable threat. There are visible, thermal, audible, and radio reflective considerations. Modern radars are adaptive on-the-fly with frequency hopping that detects in a number of wavelengths. Another technique, similar to the method you noted, is bi-static radar where the transmitter and receiver are quite a ways apart to ‘catch’ the reflected energy.

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