ON THIS DAY: February 24, 2019

February 24th is

Tortilla Chip Day

Winslow Homer Day *

World Bartender Day

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MORE! Daniel Payne, Rebecca Crumpler and Edward Perkins, click

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WORLD FESTIVALS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

Cuba – Grito de Baire *
(Baire Proclamation)

Estonia – Iseseisvuspäev
(Independence Day)

Iran – Engineer’s Day

Mexico – Día del la Bandera
(Flag Day)

Romania – Dragobete
(Spring holiday)

Thailand – National Artist Day

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On This Day in HISTORY

303 – Roman Emperor Galerius, an advocate for the old gods and traditional ways of Roman worship, issues an edict repressing Christianity, but rescinds it in 311 during his final illness



484 – Vandal King Huneric (477-484), who had organized a meeting of Catholic bishops with Arian bishops to attempt to iron out differences, apparently becomes impatient, and forcibly removes the Catholic bishops from their offices, and banishes many of them to Corsica, including Vigilius, Bishop of Thaosus. He has a few others executed

1103 – Emperor Toba of Japan born, ruler from 1108 until 1123, but since he was only five when he became Emperor, his grandfather, “retired” Emperor Shirakawa, held the actual power



1463 – Giovanni Pico della Mirandola born, Italian philosopher



1582 – Pope Gregory’s papal bull Inter gravissimas reforms the Julian calendar, regarded as a new calendar, the Gregorian calendar, now used by most countries

1604 – Arcangela Tarabotti born as Elena Cassandra, Italian nun and writer; her health problems as a child caused her father to send her at the age of 11 to the Benedictine  Convent of Sant’Anna. Monachization, placing a child in a monastery or convent, especially by force, was a common practice, often used to solve the problem of daughters deemed “unmarriageable.” It was a major theme in Tarabotti’s writings. She became Archangela, taking her first vows at 16, and her final vows in 1623, when she was 19, making her monastic status permanent. During her early years in the cloister, Tarabotti was rebellious and outspoken, refusing to wear the religious habits or cut her hair until directly ordered to do so by Catholic Cardinal and Patriarch of Venice Federico Baldissera Cornaro. She wrote of Cardinal Cornaro, “He made me amend my vanities. I cut off my hair, but I did not uproot my emotions. I reformed my life, but my thoughts flourish rampantly, and just like my shorn hair, grow all the more.” She wrote that living like a nun, she was “living a lie.” Most enclosed women lived isolated from the rest of society, prohibited by Canonical law from interacting with people outside the cloister. Tarabotti educated herself, reading and writing a great deal during her years in the convent. She also managed to circulate her works among an impressive network of correspondents who were writers, scientists and political figures, in direct disobedience of Church officials. Tarabotti wrote at least seven works, and five were published during her lifetime. She frequently compared the number of women followers of Jesus in the New Testament with the increasing limitation of women’s roles within the Catholic Church, and argued that women should have more educational opportunities and larger roles in the church and in society. She is the only woman writer in Venice documented to have the patronage of Giovanni Francisco Loredan, founder of the Accademia degli Incogniti. Her Letters Familiar and Formal, when she had them published, show the extent of her network of powerful allies in Northern Italy and France, which probably helped protect her from retaliation for her outspoken criticisms of the church and society. Her text, Paternal Tyranny, scathing and deeply subversive for the day, was not published until two years after her death, and was added to the Index librorum prohibitorum, the banned books list of the church, in 1661



1607 –  L’Orfeo by Claudio Monteverdi, one of the first works recognized as an opera, is presented in its première performance

1619 – Charles Le Brun born, French painter


Louis XIV & Academy of Science by Charles Le Brun

1711 – The London première of Rinaldo by George Frideric Handel, the first Italian opera written for the London stage

1766 – Samuel Wesley born, English composer and organist

1786 – Wilhelm Grimm born, one of the Brothers Grimm of Grimm’s Fairy Tales



1803 – The U.S. Supreme Court, in the landmark Marbury v Madison case, applies the principle of Judicial Review. In the 1800 election, Thomas Jefferson’s Democratic-Republican party defeated the Federalist party of John Adams, causing political panic among the lame duck Federalists. In Adams’ last days as president, he appointed a large number of justices of peace for the District of Columbia, which were duly approved by the Senate, signed by the president, and affixed with the official seal of the government, but not delivered to the appointees. When Jefferson assumed office March 5, 1801, he ordered James Madison, his Secretary of State, not to deliver them. William Marbury, one of the appointees, then petitioned the Supreme Court for a writ of mandamus, a legal order, to compel Madison to show cause why he should not receive his commission. Chief Justice John Marshall wrote the decision: 1)  Marbury had been properly appointed in accordance with procedures established by law, and that he therefore had a right to the writ; 2) Since Marbury had a legal right to his commission, the law must afford him a remedy, and that it was the particular responsibility of the courts to protect the rights of individuals — even against the president of the United States; 3) However, the Court could not grant the writ because Section 13 of the Judiciary Act of 1789, which granted it the right to do so, was unconstitutional insofar as it extended to cases of Original Jurisdiction – the power to bring cases directly to the Supreme Court – was the only jurisdictional matter dealt with by the Constitution itself. According to Article III, it applied only to cases “affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls” and to cases “in which the state shall be party.” By extending the Court’s original jurisdiction to include cases like Marbury’s, Congress had exceeded its authority



1811 – Daniel A. Payne born, American African Methodist Episcopal bishop; the first African American president (1863-1877) of an American college, Wilberforce University



1821 – Mexico declares its independence from Spain

1827 – Lydia E. Becker born, pioneer in the British women’s suffrage movement; amateur in astronomy and botany who devised a method to dry plants so they retain their original colour, and advocate for including girls in scientific education, arguing for a national non-gendered education system; founder of Manchester Women’s Suffrage Committee in 1867, first group of its kind in England; in 1869, she was a leader in a successful campaign to secure the vote for women in municipal elections, and granting them inclusion on school boards; in 1870, she’s one of four women elected to the Manchester School Board; co-founder of the Women’s Suffrage Journal (1870-1890), with Jessie Boucherett, which became the most widely read British publication on women’s suffrage, publishing speeches, and the editors’ correspondence with supporters and opponents. She differed from many other feminists, arguing more strenuously for the voting rights of unmarried women. Women connected to husbands and stable sources of income, Becker believed, were less desperately in need of the vote than widows and single women. This attitude made her a target of frequent ridicule in newspaper commentary and editorial cartoons



1831 – The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, the first removal treaty in accordance with the Indian Removal Act, is proclaimed. The Choctaws in Mississippi cede land east of the river in exchange for payment and land in the West

1835 – Siwinowe Kesibwi (The Shawnee Sun) becomes the first Indian language monthly publication in the U.S.

1836 – Winslow Homer Day * – Winslow Homer born, influential American artist and illustrator


Fishing Boats, by Winslow Homer

1837 – Rosalia de Castro born, a major Galician Romantic poet and author (Galicia is a region of Spain), who wrote mostly in her native language, Galego; May 17, 1863, the publication date of her first poetry collection, is now celebrated as Día das Letras Galegas (Galician Literature Day), an official holiday in the Autonomous Community of Galicia



1839 – William S. Otis receives a patent for the steam shovel

1842 – Arrigo Boito born, Italian poet, composer and librettist

1857 – The Los Angeles Vineyard Society is organized

1857 – The U.S. Government receives its first shipment of perforated postage stamps



1863 – Arizona is organized as a territory

1864 – Rebecca Lee Crumpler becomes the first black American woman to receive a medical degree, from New England Female Medical College; her Book of Medical Discourses is one of the first medical publications by an African American



1866 – In Washington, DC, an American flag made entirely of American bunting is displayed for the first time

1868 – The U.S. House of Representatives impeaches President Andrew Johnson for his attempt to dismiss Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, but the U.S. Senate acquits him

1877 – Ettie Annie Rout born, New Zealand social reformer who founded the WWI New Zealand Volunteer Sisterhood, and launched a campaign in France to prevent sexually transmitted diseases, including inspecting French brothels and rating them for newly-arriving soldiers ; by 1917, the New Zealand Army had made free distribution of her safe sex kit compulsory; ironically, this made her persona non grata in New Zealand, where she was such a scandalous figure that publishing her name became subject to a ₤100 fine



1895 – Grito de Biare (Baire Proclamation) *- A small band of the Cuban Revolutionary Party declares an insurrection against Spanish rule at Baire, a village on the eastern tip of Cuba – though it fails to spark an immediate response in other parts of Cuba, when exiled veterans of the Cuban Ten Years War (1868-1878) read newspaper reports about Baire, they begin heading back to Cuba, and the call of Cuba libre spreads, leading to the 1898 Spanish American War

1900 – NYC Mayor Van Wyck signs the construction contract for New York’s first rapid transit tunnel, which will link Manhattan and Brooklyn.

1900 –  Irmgard Bartenieff born, German-American dancer and physical therapist, leading pioneer of dance therapy



1903 – Cuba leases Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for a naval base

1907 – Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer born, a South African museum official who discovers a modern-day coelacanth in 1938, a fish found in fossils from 200 million years ago, but long considered extinct



1912 – Henrietta Szold founds Hadassah, the largest Jewish organization in American history, focusing on healthcare and education in Israel and U.S.



1925 – A thermit, an incendiary bomb made of aluminium powder and iron oxide, is used for the first time to break up a 250,000-ton ice jam clogging the St. Lawrence River

1932 – Michel Legrand born, French composer

1932 – Brazilian women win the right to vote

1934 – Renata Scotto born, Italian bel canto soprano and opera director

1938 – Dupont begins manufacturing the first nylon bristle toothbrushes

1940 – Frances Langford records “When You Wish Upon a Star”

1942 – The U.S. Government stops shipments of all 12-gauge shotguns for sporting use for the wartime effort

1942 – Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak born, Indian literary scholar and feminist; founding member of the Institute for Comparative Literature and Society; noted for her essay, “Can the Subaltern Speak?” She was awarded the 2012 Kyoto Prize in Arts and Philosophy for “speaking for the humanities against intellectual colonialism”



1942 – The Voice of America (VOA) airs for the first time

1946 – Juan Peron is elected president of Argentina

1948 – Jayaram Jayalalithaa born, Indian AIADMK politician and film actress; served as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu (1991-2016); general secretary (1989-2016) of the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam(AIADMK), a Dravidian party based on the ideology of Periyar E.V. Ramasamy; during the 1960s, she was dubbed “Queen of the Tamil Cinema” and appeared in 140 films



1951 – Laimdota Straujuma born, Latvian politician and economist; the first woman Prime Minister of Latvia (2014-2016); Minister of Agriculture (2011-2014); Secretary of State of the Ministry for Regional Development and Local Government (2007-2010)



1952 – Judith Ortiz Cofer born, Puerto Rican American author; 1990 Pushcart Prize for “More Room”; first Hispanic to win the O Henry Prize for her story, “The Latin Deli”



1956 – The city of Cleveland invokes a 1931 law barring people under the age of 18 from dancing in public without an adult guardian

1956 – Judith Butler born, American philosopher, gender theorist and LGBT rights activist; her book, Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity, has had an impact on feminist and LGBT scholarship


 


1956 – Paula Zahn born, American journalist and newscaster; current host of the true crime documentary series, On the Case with Paula Zahn

1979 – The Police release the single “Roxanne” in the U.S.

1983 – A U.S. congressional commission releases a report condemning the internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II

1986 – Edward Perkins is named as the first black U.S. ambassador to South Africa (1986-1989)



1987 – An exploding supernova is discovered in the Large Magellanic Cloud galaxy

1988 – The U.S. Supreme Court overturns a $200,000 award to Rev. Jerry Falwell was awarded by a lower court in his case against “Hustler” magazine; this ruling expands the legal protections for parody and satire

1989 – Iran’s Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini sentences Salman Rushdie to death for his novel The Satanic Verses, and a $1 to $3 million bounty is put on Rushdie



1992 – U.S. Postal Service unveils 2 versions of its proposed Elvis stamp for fans to vote on; Young Elvis design wins and is issued on January 8, 1993

1993 – Eric Clapton wins six Grammy Awards for “Tears In Heaven”



1997 – The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) names six brands of birth control as safe and effective “morning-after” pills for preventing pregnancy

2007 – The Virginia General Assembly passes a resolution expressing “profound regret” for the state’s role in slavery


Slave auction in Virginia – 1861

2008 – Cuba’s parliament names Raul Castro as president; his brother Fidel had ruled for nearly 50 years

2010 – Oxfam Hong Kong suspends its student training programme in China after the Chinese government said the charity had “unfriendly intentions”

2014 – Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni signs a law toughening penalties for homosexuality, imposing 14-year sentences for a first conviction and up to life in prison for what the law calls “aggravated homosexuality.”  U.S. President Barack Obama warned that enacting the law would tarnish Uganda’s human rights record and complicate its relations with the U.S. A Ugandan government spokesman said Museveni was standing up for Uganda’s “independence in the face of Western pressure”

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About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 50 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband.
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