ON THIS DAY: August 21, 2019

August 21st is

Senior Citizens Day *

National Spumoni Day

Sweet Tea Day

World P.O.E.T. Day
(Aussie slang – Piss Off Early Today)

_______________________________________

MORE! Nat Turner, Lili Boulanger and Count Basie, click

_______________________________________

WORLD FESTIVALS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

Belgium – Brussels: West Europe Film Festival
(through Aug-23-2019)

Croatia – Novalja:
Sonus Festival

Micronesia – Kosrae Gospel Day
(arrival of missionaries at Kosrae Island)

Morocco & Western Sahara – Féte de la Jeunesse
(Youth Day and Mohammed VI birthday)

Philippines – Ninoy Aquino Day *

_______________________________________

On This Day in HISTORY

1192 – Minamoto no Yoritomo, a member of the Seiwa Genji branch of the Minamoto clan, who grew up in exile because his immediate family was on the losing side in the Heiji rebellion, becomes Seii Tai Shōgun and the de facto ruler of Japan; founder of the Kamakura Shogunate, which ruled Japan until 1333



1552 – Syed Muhammad Qadiri born in what is now Pakistan, Sufi scholar, preacher and saint; founder of the Naushahia branch of the Qadiriyya Sufi order

1680 – The Pueblo Revolt: Pueblo peoples drive the Spanish out, and take possession of Santa Fe, New Mexico

1689 – Battle of Dunkeld: Orange Convenantor Royalists (supporters of William of Orange) win a decisive victory over Jacobite Royalists (Highlanders and Irish recruits who supported deposed Scottish King James VII)


William Cleland commanding the Orange forces during Dunkeld

1725 – Jean-Baptiste Greuze born, French painter

1770 – Captain James Cook claims eastern Australia for Great Britain, names it New South Wales

1791 – The Haitian Revolution begins, the only slave uprising that became a successful revolution, leading to the founding of the independent nation of Haiti in 1804, ruled by former slaves in an uneasy coalition with mulattoes and black freedmen; reparations demanded by the French government for former slave owners were so heavy Haiti’s last payment wasn’t made until 1947, keeping the country deeply impoverished

1805 – August Bournonville born, Danish ballet master, soloist and choreographer; Royal Danish Ballet; his best-known ballet is La Sylphide



1808 – Napoleonic Wars: British and Portuguese forces led by General Arthur Wellesley (later 1st Duke of Wellington) defeat French forces under Major-General Jean-Andoche Junta near the Vimeiro, Portugal, the first Anglo-Portuguese victory of the Peninsular War



1810 – Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte resigns as a Marshal of France when he is elected Crown Prince of Sweden by the Riksdag of the Estates



1831 – Southampton Slave Insurrection: Nat Turner, a slave who was taught read and write, reads from the Bible and preaches to his fellow slaves. Believing that God has inspired him, he leads an anti-slavery revolt in Southhampton County, Virginia.  Over several days, the rebel slaves kill over 60 men, women, and children before being stopped by local militia groups. Turner eludes capture for nearly two months, but then is quickly tried and hanged with several of the others. Although only 40-50 slaves participated in the revolt, white mobs avenged the deaths of plantation owners by killing nearly 200 blacks, some of them freedmen. The rebellion prompted passage of harsher laws throughout the Southern states, including prohibitions against teaching slaves to read or write, and outlawing organized efforts at emancipation in the South. Tension between the North and South became even more pronounced as the northern abolitionist movement increased its attacks on slavery.



1841 – John Hampton patents the venetian blind

1858 – First of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglass

1861 – Mary Lizzie Macomber born, American artist in the Pre-Raphaelite style. A large part of her work was lost during a fire in her studio in 1913



1863 – Lawrence, Kansas is destroyed, and 180 civilians killed, by pro-Confederate “bushwackers” led by William Quantrill, operating under the Confederate Partisan Ranger Act, which was repealed in February 1864 because of the growing violence against civilians

1872 – Aubrey Beardsley born, English Aesthetic Movement illustrator and author


Excaliber Rises from the Lake, by Aubrey Beardsley

1876 – The Qing dynasty and the United Kingdom signed the Chefoo Convention, under which Qing promised to punish those responsible for the murder of British diplomat Augustus Margary in February, 1875, and repeal the likin (a Chinese internal tariff on goods in transit first introduced in 1853. It was not actually repealed until 1931)

1878 – The American Bar Association is founded in Saratoga NY

1886 – Ruth Manning-Sanders born in Wales, British poet and author of children’s books and collections of folk and fairy tales, who published over 90 books. After their marriage in 1911, she and her husband, artist (not the actor) George Sanders, toured Britain in a horse-drawn caravan and worked in a circus, which she wrote about extensively. Noted for her A Book of series, from A Book of Giants (1962) to A Book of Magic Horses (1984)



1888 – William Burroughs patents an adding machine

1893 – Lili Boulanger born, French composer, first woman to win the Prix de Rome with her composition Faust et Hélène



1897 – The Olds Motor Works begins producing Oldsmobiles



1897 – Constance McLaughlin Green born, American historian and author; Pulitzer Prize for History for Washington, Village and Capital, 1800-1878



1901 – The International Secretariat of National Trade Union Centres (ISNTUC) is founded in Copenhagen, Denmark; an international consultative body of trade unions

1904 – Count Basie born, American pianist, composer, and bandleader



1906 – Friz Freleng born, American animator, director, and producer



1911 – A Louvre employee steals the Mona Lisa

1916 – Consuelo Velázquez born, Mexican concert pianist, singer-songwriter best known for “Bésame Mucho,” and member of the Mexican Congress



1918 – WWI: The Second Battle of the Somme begins

1921 – Jaymala Shiledar born, Indian Hindustani classical singer and stage actress, influential in reviving Marathi musical theatre



1923 – Kalamazoo MI ordinance bans dancers from gazing into each other’s eyes

1929 – Marie Severin born, American illustrator and comic book artist, known for her work for Marvel Comics and EC Comics, Will Eisner Comics Hall of Fame inductee

1933 – Dame Janet Baker born, British mezzo-soprano, noted for her acting ability,  performances in Italian operas and works by Benjamin Britten and Gustav Mahler


Dame Janet Baker


1938 – Fascist Italy: A ban preventing most Jewish teachers from working in Italian schools goes into effect

1939 – Festus Mogae born, Botswana Democratic Party politician, statesman and economist. Currently, he serves as the Special Envoy of the UN Secretary-General on Climate Change, and since 2010, has been on the advisory board of TeachAIDS, a U.S. nonprofit. Previously, he was President of Botswana (1998-2008), after being Vice President of Botswana (1992-1998). In 2008, he was honored with the Ibrahim Prize for Achievement in African Leadership



1944 – “Dumbarton Oaks” conference begins groundwork for the United Nations

1944 – Peter Weir born, Australian director; his credits include: Picnic at Hanging Rock, The Last Wave, Gallipoli, Witness, The Mosquito Coast, Dead Poets Society and Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World

1945 – Physicist Harry Daghlian is fatally irradiated in a criticality accident during an experiment with the Demon core at Los Alamos National Laboratory

1945 – Celia Brayfield born, English novelist, non-fiction writer, and cultural commentator; author of Pearls, White Ice, Getting Home, and Heartswap



1951 – Yana Bland (née Mintoff) born, Maltese Labour politician, economist and educator; she worked as a teacher on the United Kingdom, where she was active in the Socialist Workers Party. On her return to Malta, she was one of the founders of the Association of Women of the Mediterranean Region. She was an editor on four non-fiction books of collected works, Militarism in the Mediterranean, Health in the Mediterranean, Nobody Can Imagine Our Longing: Refugees and Immigrants in the Mediterranean, and In Search of Peace. In 1998, she was a founder and superintendent of the Katherine Anne Porter School in Wimberly, near Austin, Texas. She returned to Malta in 2012 to help her ailing father. In 2013, she ran for a seat in the Maltese House of Representatives, but was not elected

1952 – Sister Dr Bernadette Porter born, British Roman Catholic nun, educator and academic administrator. She held several posts at Roehampton University before serving as Vice Chancellor (1999-2004). She was appointed CBE in 2005, and is a member of the Reform Club, the first gentlemen’s club in London to accept women as equal members, beginning in 1981

1957 – The USSR conducts a long-range test flight of the R-7 Semyorka, the first intercontinental ballistic missile

1959 – Hawaii becomes the 50th U.S. state

1961 – Jomo Kenyatta, Kenyan political activist during the Mau Mau Rebellion, is released from jail after serving nine years



1961 – Motown releases its first #1 hit, “Please Mr. Postman” by The Marvelettes

1963 – Martial law declared in South Vietnam because of Buddhist anti-regime protests

1967 – Stéphane Charbonnier born, known as Charb, French satirical cartoonist and journalist; director of publication for Charlie Hebdo; murdered by Islamist terrorists



1968 – Laura Trevelyan born, British television journalist; BBC World News America anchor/correspondent based in New York City; BBC United Nations correspondent (2006-2009). She is the author of A Very British Family: The Trevelyans and Their World, and The Winchester: The Gun That Built An American Dynasty. She became a U.S. citizen in 2016



1972 – NASA orbiting astronomy observatory Copernicus is launched, a cooperative effort with the UK Science Research Council; the most successful of four OAO missions

1979 – Bolshoi Ballet Premier danseur Alexander Godunov defects to the U.S.



1983 – Ninoy Aquino Day * in the Philippines, the day of his assassination at the Manila International Airport, which has been renamed in his honor. Aquino, a former Philippine Senate member, and outspoken leader of the opposition to Ferdinand Marcos, was returning from three years of exile. His murder was the catalyst which turned opposition to the Marcos regime into a crusade, and thrust his widow, Corazon Aquino, into the political spotlight



1988 – A U.S. Congress joint resolution proclaims August 21 as National Senior Citizens Day *



1992 – An eleven-day siege begins at white separatist Randy Weaver’s cabin in Ruby Ridge, Idaho, when U.S. Marshalls exchange gunfire with Weaver family members

1993 – The Sleepless in Seattle soundtrack hits #1 on the Billboard LP chart



1996 – U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act makes getting and keeping health insurance easier

2001 – NATO announces it will send a peace-keeping force to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

2002 – Pakistan President General Pervez Musharraf unilaterally amends Pakistani constitution, to extend his term in office and give himself power to dissolve parliament

2009 – The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America elects to lift a ban prohibiting sexually active gays and lesbians from serving as ministers

2016 – Closing ceremonies of the Summer Olympics (XXXI Olympiad) in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil; first Olympic Games held in South America, first held in a Portuguese-speaking country, and first summer games held entirely in the host country‘s winter season. Many ecological and environmental protection measures were introduced at the Rio Olympics, including using recycled materials in the Olympic medals



2017 – Millions of people in the U.S., using special protective glasses or viewers, gazed up in awe at the total eclipse of the sun all along the 70-mile wide “path of totality” which stretched through 14 states, from Salem, Oregon, to Charleston, South Carolina. It was the first time in 99 years that a total eclipse was visible in the U.S. from the shore of the Pacific Ocean all the way to the Atlantic coast.


_______________________________________

About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 45 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband and a bewildered Border Collie.
This entry was posted in History, Holidays, On This Day and tagged , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.