ON THIS DAY: June 26, 2020

June 26th is

International Day in Support of Victims of Torture *

Beautician’s Day

National Canoe Day

Chocolate Pudding Day

Same Sex Marriage Day *

International Day Against Drug Abuse & Illicit Trafficking *

____________________________

MORE! Gauhar Jaan, Walter Sisulu and Catherine Samba-Panza, click

_____________________________

WORLD FESTIVALS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

Azerbaijan – Armed Forces Day
Germany – Hamelin:
Ratcatcher’s Day *
Madagascar – Independence Day
Romania – Flag Day
Somalia – Independence
of British Somaliland
Thailand – Sunthorn Phu * Day
(Birthday of famous Thai epic poet)

_____________________________

On This Day in HISTORY

4 AD – Tiberius is adopted by Augustus, founder of the Roman Principate, as his heir

699 – En no Ozuno, a Japanese mystic and apothecary who will be regarded as the founder of the folk religion Shugendō, is banished from the Imperial Court to Izu Ōshima, a volcanic island 75 miles (120 kilometers) southeast of Honshu. He had been accused of manipulating demonic spirits by sorcery, but his medicinal herbal knowledge was still highly valued



1284 – The Pied Piper lures 130 children away from Hamelin – now Ratcatcher’s Day * in modern-day Hamelin



1295 – The Duke of Poznań is crowned as Przemysł II, King of Poland, after a long period of Polish High Dukes; he is the first hereditary king since Boleslaw II in 1079. The white eagle is added to the Polish coat of arms

1483 – Richard III takes the English throne

1541 – Francisco Pizarro is assassinated in a coup d’état by a group of 20 heavily armed men led by Diego de Almagro II, “El Mozo”

1699 – Madame Marie Thérèse Rodet Geoffrin born, the most prominent Parisian salonnière of her day, internationally known as host to the influential Philosophes  and Encyclopédistes of the French Enlightenment; her twice-weekly salons began with an afternoon dinner, on Mondays for artists and on Wednesdays with the literati. Her fame was so wide-spread that notable visitors and foreign ministers called on Madame Geoffrin, hoping to be invited to one of her select dinners. She was a mentor of younger women like Julie de Lespinasse and Suzanne Necker, who became the next generation of salonnières.  Geoffrin was a patron of the arts who commissioned several works. Many artists and writers of the day made connections with wealthy patrons through her salons


Madame Geoffrinn by Jean-Marc Nattier

1721 – Dr. Zabdiel Boyston gives first smallpox inoculations in America

1786 – Sunthorn Phu * born as Phra Sunthonwohan, major Thai poet of the Rattanakosin Period (1782-1932); Thailand’s best-known royal poet, who served in the court of  King Rama II, until he resigned upon the king’s death in 1824, and became a monk. Twenty years later, in the reign of King Rama III, he returned to court as a royal scribe, where he remained for the rest of his life. Phu’s epic poetry is still popular in Thailand today. Sunthorn Phu was declared a World Poet by UNESCO in 1986.



1819 – W.K. Clarkson Jr. gets a patent for a velocipede, the first U.S. bicycle



1824 – William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, born; British mathematical physicist,  engineer and inventor, who was born in Belfast. He did important work at the University of Glasgow in mathematical analysis of electricity and formulation of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and did much to unify the emerging discipline of physics. He was an electric telegraph engineer and inventor, and was knighted for his work on the transatlantic telegraph project. His version of the mariner’s compass greatly improved its reliability. Absolute temperatures are stated in units of kelvin in his honour. While the existence of a lower limit to temperature (absolute zero) was known prior to his work, Kelvin is known for determining its correct value as approximately −273.15 degree Celsius or −459.67 degree  Fahrenheit. He was ennobled in 1892, becoming Baron Kelvin, in recognition of his achievements in thermodynamics, the first British scientist to be elevated to the House of Lords. He died in 1907 at age 83

1843 – Treaty of Nanking comes into effect; Hong Kong Island is ceded to the British “in perpetuity”

1860 – The first railway line in South Africa, between Durban and the Point on the Bay of Natal, is officially opened

1862 – Brazil adopts the Metric system

1870 – Christmas Day is declared a federal holiday in the United States by President Ulysses S. Grant



1873 – Gauhar Jaan born as Angelina Yeoward in British India, to a father who was an engineer, and a mother who had been trained in Indian music and dance; Jaan became a Hindustani classical singer and dancer who was a court musician (1887-1896) at the royal courts of Dabhanga Raj, and one of the first performers to make records in India, for the Gramophone Company of India. She made over 600 records in 10 languages between 1902 and 1920, and did much to popularize Hindustani musical forms like thumri, dadra, karjri, and tarana.



1878 – Albert Siklos born, Hungarian cellist, composer and musicologist

1892 – Pearl S. Buck born, American author; 1938 Nobel Prize for Literature; she was the daughter of missionaries, spending most of the first 40 years of her life in Zhenjiang, China. Her best-selling novel, The Good Earth, won the 1932 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction



1893 – Dorothy Fuldheim born, American print and television journalist and news anchor; began career as a reporter for The Cleveland Press newspaper; in 1947, she became a pioneer in television news at age 54, joining the staff of Cleveland’s WEWS-TV, then the only TV station between New York and Chicago; first American woman anchor on a TV news broadcast; first U.S. woman to host her own show, as well as first U.S. woman to have a TV news analysis program, Highlights of the News



1894 – The American Railway Union, led by Eugene V. Debs, called a general strike in sympathy with Pullman workers

1896 – Vitascope Hall, the first U.S. movie theater, opens in New Orleans

1898 – Willy Messerschmitt born, German aircraft engineer and designer



1902 – Antonia Brico born, first woman to conduct the Berlin Philharmonic (1930) and N.Y. Philharmonic (1938). Founder-conductor of the Women’s Symphony Orchestra (1934-1939). When male musicians were admitted, it became the Brico Symphony Orchestra, which evolved into the Denver Philharmonic in 2004. Earlier, Brico was conductor of the Boulder Philharmonic (1958-1963). She was raised as Wilhelmina Wolthius by abusive foster parents who never formally adopted her, but found solace at the piano, because “Music doesn’t hurt little girls.” It wasn’t until college that she learned the true story of her illegitimate birth to a Dutch teenager and an Italian nightclub pianist with the last name of Brico, and reclaimed her birth name. Composer Jean Sibelius was a life-long mentor, who called Brico his “sixth daughter.” In 1950, she detoured after an engagement in Europe to what was then French Equatorial Africa to meet Dr. Albert Schweitzer, who shared her love of Bach, which was the beginning of an enduring friendship. Judy Collins was one of her piano students as a child, and participated in making the 1974 documentary film directed by Jill Godmilow called Antonia: A Portrait of a Woman



1902 – William Lear born, American industrialist/electrical engineer; Lear Jet Corp.; granted over 100 patents for aircraft communications and navigation equipment



1911 – “Babe” Didrikson Zaharias born, multi-talented athlete, outstanding in basketball, track and field, swimming, golf, and billiards, winner of 10 major women’s golf championships. In 1948, she was the first woman to attempt to qualify for the U.S. Open, but her application was rejected by the U.S. Golf Association (USGA) stating that the event was intended to be open to men only



1915 – Charlotte Zolotow born, American children’s author, poet, editor and children’s book publisher; her best-known children’s book is When the Wind Stops



1916 – Virginia Satir born, pioneering American family therapist and author; Conjoint Family Therapy, Peoplemaking, and The New Peoplemaking; co-founder of the Mental Health Research Institute (MRI), which offered the first formal family therapy training program – Satir was the Training Director; she believed that the “presenting issue” was seldom the real problem, but how people coped with the issue created the problem; organized two  groups to help individuals finf mental health workers, and connect with others suffering from similar issues; noted for developing the Virginia Satir Change Process Model, using clinical studies, often used by management and organizational consultants to define how change impacts organizations



1917 – WWI: The American Expeditionary Forces begin to arrive in France

1921 – Violette Szabo born, WWII French-British Special Operations Executive (SOE) agent; on her second mission into occupied France, she was captured by the German army, interrogated, tortured and deported to Ravensbrück concentration camp in Germany, where she was executed in 1945. Posthumous recipient of the George Cross, the UK’s second highest award “for acts of the greatest heroism or for most conspicuous courage in circumstance of extreme danger” while not under direct fire by the enemy



1919 – The New York Daily News is first published

1922 – Carolyn Sherif born, social psychologist, pioneer researcher in group psychology, self-system, and gender identity



1925 – Charlie Chaplin’s classic silent film, The Gold Rush, premieres in Hollywood

1932 – Dame Margarite Pindling born, Lady Pindling, Governor-General of the Bahamas since 2014; named Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Michael and Saint George by Queen Elizabeth II in 2007



1934 – U.S.  President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Federal Credit Union Act, which establishes credit unions

1936 – Edith Pearlman born, American short story and non-fiction writer; awarded the 2012 National Book Critics Circle Award for “Binocular Vision,” and the 2008 Pushcart Prize for “Door Psalm”



1936 – Nancy Willard born, American novelist, poet and children’s book author/and sometimes illustrator; won 1982 Newberry Medal for A Visit to William Blake’s Inn



1945 – The United Nations Charter is signed by 50 nations in San Francisco

1946 – Candace Beebe Pert born, American neuroscientist, internationally recognized pharmacologist who discovered the opiate receptor, the cellular binding site for endorphins in the brain, and author; worked for the National Institute of Mental Health (1975-1987); Chief of the Section on Brain Biochemistry of the Clinical Neuroscience Branch (1983-1987), the first woman section chief at the NIMH; founded and directed a private biotech lab in 1987; Molecules Of Emotion: Why You Feel the Way You Feel



1948 – Shirley Jackson’s now-classic short story “The Lottery” is published in The New Yorker magazine, causing cancelled subscriptions and prompting hate mail



1948 – The Berlin Airlift begins in earnest as the U.S., Britain and France begin dropping supplies to Berlin’s isolated western sector after the USSR cuts off land and water routes

1949 – Mary Styles Harris born, American biologist and geneticist; founder, president and genetics consultant of Harris & Associates, Ltd.



1950 – President Truman authorizes U.S. Air Force and Navy entry in the Korean conflict

1952 – In South Africa, the Defiance Campaign against the apartheid laws, a coordinated effort by the African National Congress (ANC), the South African Indian Congress (SAIC) and the Coloured People’s Congress, begins when volunteers, including Nelson Mandela, Yusuf Dadoo and Walter Sisulu, defy the apartheid laws in Johannesburg and other South African cities.


Walter Sisulu and Nelson Mandela

1955 – Mick Jones born, British singer-songwriter, lead guitar for The Clash (1974-1983); co-founder of The Justice Tonight Band in 2011


Mick Jones – by Steve Emberton – 1976

1956 – Catherine Samba-Panza born, lawyer and non-partisan politician; interim President of the Central African Republic (2014-2016), first woman to serve as president of Central African Republic; Mayor of Bangui (2013-2014), C.A.R.’s capital



1963 – U.S. President John F. Kennedy gave his “Ich bin ein Berliner” speech, underlining the support of the United States for democratic West Germany shortly after Soviet-supported East Germany erected the Berlin Wall

1964 – The Beatles album A Hard Day’s Night is released in the U.S.



1973 – John W. Dean testifies before the Senate Watergate Committee about the Nixon White House “enemies list”

1974 – The Universal Product Code is scanned for the first time in the U.S. to sell a package of Wrigley’s chewing gum at the Marsh Supermarket in Troy OH

1975 – Two FBI agents and a member of the American Indian Movement are killed in a shootout on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota; Leonard Peltier is later convicted of the murders in a controversial trial

1988 – The first International Day Against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking * – designated by the UN General Assembly



1990 – George H.W. Bush, after campaigning for office on a pledge of “no new taxes,” concedes that tax increases will have to be included in any deficit-reduction package

1996 – U.S. Supreme Court orders the Virginia Military Institute to admit women or forgo state funding support

1997 – J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone is published in U.K.



1998 – The International Day in Support of Victims of Torture * proclaimed by the UN General Assembly

2000 – The Human Genome Project announces completion of a “rough draft” sequence



2003 – U.S. Supreme Court, in a 6-3 decision, strikes down state bans on consenting same-sex relations

2008 – U.S. Supreme Court overturns a handgun ban in the District of Columbia as it affirmed 5-4 an individual’s right to gun ownership

2013 –  U.S Supreme Court rules that Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) is in violation of the 5th Amendment, so that married same-sex couples are entitled to federal benefits and that same-sex marriages are valid in California, two major victories for the LGBTQ rights movement

2015 – In Obergefell et al v Hodges, Director, Ohio Department of Health,and other similar cases, U.S. Supreme Court makes 5-4 ruling that states cannot ban same-sex marriage – now celebrated as Same Sex Marriage Day *



2016 – New York City’s annual gay pride parade opened with a moment of silence in honor of the 49 people killed and 53 injured in the June 12th mass shooting at Pulse, the gay nightclub in Orlando Florida which was the site of the deadliest mass shooting in the U.S. to date. Authorities tightened security at pride parades in New York and around the nation in the wake of the Pulse massacre. The pride events also celebrated President Obama’s designation of the area around New York City’s Stonewall Inn as the first national monument to gay rights


Stonewall Inn

2017 – The family of Philando Castile, the black motorist fatally shot last July by a police officer, has reached a $3 million settlement with the city of St. Anthony, Minnesota. The settlement will let both sides avoid a wrongful death lawsuit that could have taken years. The agreement came just days after a jury acquitted the officer, Jeronimo Yanez, of second-degree manslaughter and other charges. The settlement will be paid to the victim’s mother, Valerie Castile, as the family’s trustee. The shooting attracted national attention and sparked protests after Castile’s girlfriend, who was in the car with Castile and her then-4-year-old daughter, livestreamed the aftermath on Facebook

2018 – The U.S. Supreme Court overturned a California law that required so-called “crisis pregnancy centers” to provide information about available abortion services. The California Reproductive Freedom, Accountability, Comprehensive Care, and Transparency Act, or FACT Act, required that clinics tell pregnant women requesting services that the state offered free or low-cost abortions. The two anti-abortion clinics that challenged the law argued that it violated their First Amendment rights. The case was the latest in a series of 5-4 rulings by the conservative majority, which was restored when the Senate approved Justice Neil Gorsuch. Gorsuch was appointed by Donald Trump to a seat that sat vacant for over than a year after Justice Antonin Scalia died in February 2016. President Barack Obama had nominated moderate liberal Judge Merrick Garland  March, 2016, to fill the seat. But instead of confirming President Obama’s nominee during his final year in office, congressional Republicans refused to consider the nomination, failing to fulfill their responsibility to “advise and consent” by stalling the process until Trump was inaugurated, and then quickly pushing through Gorsuch’s confirmation.

2019 – Former University of Southern California gynecologist, Dr. George Tyndall, was arrested and charged with sexually assaulting 16 women who were patients at the school’s student health center. The 29 felony counts were the first criminal charges in the case, although USC already has offered to pay $215 million to settle thousands of civil claims. Tyndall, 72, worked at USC for nearly three decades. One of his accusers, Daniella Mohazab, called the filing of charges “a huge step in moving forward.”  Tyndall denied doing anything wrong, and Andrew Flier, one of Tyndall’s attorneys claimed, “We’re going to be able to punch some serious holes in all these allegations.” However, Medical experts who evaluated Tyndall’s confidential records reported there was evidence that he preyed on USC students from Asian countries who were vulnerable because of their age and language skills.  The records, totaling over 600 pages, are evidence in a federal class-action suit by former patients against Tyndall and USC


Attorney Gloria Allred (left) and Daniella Mohazab

2019 – The first World Refrigeration Day * is inaugurated by the World Refrigeration Secretariat, on the birthday of William Thomson, Baron Kelvin

_____________________________

About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 50 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband.
This entry was posted in History, Holidays, On This Day and tagged , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.