ON THIS DAY: June 27, 2020

June 27th is

Industrial Workers of the World Day *

National HIV Testing Day *

National Orange Blossom Day

National Sunglasses Day *

National PTSD Awareness Day *

____________________________________

MORE! Emma Goldman, José Barbosa and Margaret Ekpo, click

____________________________________

WORLD FESTIVALS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

Djibouti – National Day

Finland – National Sleepy Head Day

Philippines – Iglesia ni Cristo Day

United States – Puerto Rico:
José Celso Barbosa Day *

Tajikistan –Day of National Unity

Vietnam – Martyrs and Wounded Soldiers Day

____________________________________

On This Day in HISTORY

850 – Abu Ishaq Ibrahim II ibn Ahmad born, Aghlabid emir of Ifriqiya (on the North African coast, covering what is now Tunisia, western Libya, and eastern Algeria). His rule lasted from 875 until the Caliph of Baghdad deprived him of his governorship in 902, because of the hundreds of people he had taken great pleasure in torturing and/or executing for little or no reason

1358 – The Republic of Ragusa (now Dubrovnik) is founded



1497 – The Cornish Rebellion is led by Michael ‘An Gof’ (the blacksmith) Joseph and Thomas Flamank, marching on London to protest against King Henry VII’s levy of a tax to pay for an invasion of Scotland – they believed it was the business of the barons of the north to defend the Scottish border. But Michael An Gof and Thomas Flamank are executed at Tyburn, London, England, on this day

1542 – Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo claims California for Spain


Route of Cabrillo’s voyage


1556 – The Stratford Martyrs, a group of 11 men and 2 women, are burned at the stake for their Protestant beliefs at Stratford-le-Bow during the marian persecutions – at least 300 people were burned to death during the five years of Mary I’s reign as Queen of England

1615 – The first tea leaves are imported to the West from China

1743 – During the War of the Austrian Succession, George II becomes the last reigning British monarch to lead his troops in battle, at Dettingen on the River Main in Germany


King George II, 1706 Giclee Print by Joseph Smith

1745 – Jan Nepomuk Vent born, Czech musician and composer

1767 – Alexis Bouvard born, French astronomer; director of the Paris Observatory

1801 – British forces defeat the French and take control of Cairo, Egypt

1812 – Anna Cabot Lowell Quincy Waterston born, American writer of poems, novels, hymns and a diary, who often used variations on her initials as a pen name; Quincy Waterson was also a supporter of education for the blind. In 2003, the diary she had written at age 17 was published as A Woman’s Wit and Whimsy



1817 – Louise von François born, German writer, best known for her historical novel, Die letzte Reckenburgerin (The Last Lady of Reckenburg)



1844 – Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, and his brother Hyrum Smith, are killed by a mob at the Carthage, Illinois jail, where they were being held on charges of starting a riot. After a split had developed among members of the Mormon inner circle – William Law and Robert Foster accuse Joseph Smith of proposing marriage to their wives, and he excommunicates them for supposedly plotting against his life, Law and Foster procure indictments against Smith for perjury and polygamy, then the printing press used to print accusations against Smith is ordered destroyed, and the angry mob marches on the Carthage jail

1846 – Charles Stewart Parnell born, Irish nationalist member of British Parliament



1857 – José Celso Barbosa * born, Puerto Rican physician, sociologist and political leader; one of the first people of African descent to earn a medical degree in the U.S. Dr, Barbosa was a member of Puerto Rico’s Executive Cabinet (1900-1917) and of the Senate of Puerto Rico (1917-1921)



1869 – Emma Goldman born, Russian-born American labor leader and anarchist. Goldman was a pivotal figure in the development of the anarchist political philosophy in the first half of the 20th She was a well-known writer and lecturer on anarchist philosophy, women’s rights, and social issues, attracting crowds of thousands. She repeatedly arrested for “inciting to riot” and distributing birth control information. She was the founder and first editor (1906-1907) of the anarchist journal, Mother Earth, “A Monthly Magazine Devoted to Social Science and Literature,” which lasted until 1917, when Goldman, and Alexander Berkman, who became editor after Goldman, were arrested and found guilty under the 1917 Espionage Act because they encouraged men to resist the draft after the U.S. entered WWI. They were deported with 247 others to the Soviet Union in 1919 aboard the USS Buford. Goldman had initially viewed the Bolshevik revolution positively, but began to have doubts even before she arrived in Russia, where she quickly became completely disillusioned. She began a long, circuitous journey, attempting to return to the U.S., by way of England, France and Canada. After her autobiography was published, she was allowed to lecture in the U.S., but only on drama and her autobiography, and when her visa expired, she was denied a new one.  She spent some time in Spain during the Spanish Civil War, then returned to Canada. In February 1940, she suffered a debilitating stroke, which paralyzed her right side, and left her unable to speak. After a slight improvement, she had a second stroke in May, and died five days later at age 70.



1869 – ‘Kate Carew’ born as Mary Williams; caricaturist and writer who worked for the New York World; she was sent to Europe in 1911 to write and illustrate a series, “Kate Carew Abroad” for which she did about 500 interviews of notables like Pablo Picasso, John Galsworthy, George Moore, Émile Zola, and Lady Sackville-West. Back in the U.S. in 1912, she spent several days with Abdu’l-Bahá, head of the Bahá’í  faith at the time, during his visit to America. She did caricatures of Woodrow Wilson, Mark Twain, Ethel Barrymore and many others. Her work also appeared in the British literary journal, The Tatler, and the London Strand

Kate Carew caricatures

1872 – Paul Laurence Dunbar born, to parents who had been slaves before the Civil War; author and poet, one of the first African-American poets who gained national attention and acclaim



1880 – Helen Keller born; two years later, illness makes her deaf and blind; American author, and activist; first blind and deaf person to earn a bachelor of arts degree; a member of the Socialist Party of America, she campaigned for women’s suffrage, labor rights, for socialism and against militarism



1885 – Chichester Bell and Charles Tainter apply for a patent on a gramophone

1885 – Guilhermina Suggia born, Portuguese cellist, internationally renowned, student of Pablo Casals, bequeathed her Stradivarius cello to the Royal Academy of Music in London,
which funded the Suggia Gift in 1955, a scholarship for young cellists. Jacqueline du Pré was one of the early recipients



1888 –  Antoinette Perry born, American actress, director, producer and co-founder and chair of the board of the American Theater Wing; the Antoinette Perry Awards, commonly known as the Tony Awards, were established in her honor



1893 – The New York Stock Market crashes, in a panic caused by a run on U.S. gold by Europeans trying to cover losses on investments with a bank in Argentina when crop failures and a coup d’état collapsed that nation’s economy

1893 – The song by Patty and Mildred J. Hill, “Happy Birthday to You” is published, and becomes the most recognized song in the English language; in 2016, U.S. courts declared it was in the public domain


Mildred (left) and Patty Hill

1894 – In Brazil, Federalist Riograndense Revolution: Battle of Passo Fundo in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between Loyalists of the Brazilian Republic and the Maragatos, revolutionaries trying to liberate Rio Grande do Sul from the governance of President Julio de Castilhos. The Loyalists win, and execute many of the rebels

1898 – Sailor Joshua Slocum completes the first solo circumnavigation of the globe, returning to Newport Rhode Island aboard his rebuilt oyster boat Spray



1905 – The Industrial Workers of the World * (IWW), whose members are nicknamed the ‘Wobblies,’ is founded in Chicago Illinois, the first union in the U.S. open to women and men of all races. Some of the union’s better-known founders were “Big Bill” Haywood, James Connolly, Eugene V. Debs, Daniel De Leon, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Thomas Hagerty, William Trautmann, Lucy Parsons, Frank Bohn, “Mother” Jones, Vincent Saint John, and Ralph Chaplin.



1906 – Catherine Cookson born, Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (1993), English best-selling historical romance and fiction author. She left school at fourteen, worked in domestic service and as a laundress, then ran a boarding house; after marrying at age 34, she suffered a series of miscarriages, and it was discovered that she had a rare vascular disease, telangiectasia, which causes bleeding and anemia. She had a mental breakdown, and took up writing to help her cope with depression during her recovery. Her nearly 100 novels have sold over 123 million copies, and been translated into 123 languages. Cookson’s charitable trust has provided major funding for medical research, and supports charitable and artistic organizations



1914 – Helena Benitez born, Filipina politician, women’s equal rights activist, academic and administrator of the Philippine Women’s University (private university co-founded by her mother); Member of the Philippines Senate from 1967 until it was closed under martial law in 1972, then in the Batasang Pambansa (National Assembly) from 1978 to 1984 (it was abolished in 1986); founder of the Bayanihan Philippine Dance Company in 1956, which was designated as the Philippines national folk dance company in 1998



1914 – Margaret Ekpo born, leading Nigerian women’s rights activist and social mobilizer, helped push the movement beyond ethnic solidarity; at age 20, her hope of advanced training as a teacher was delayed when her father died; she taught in elementary schools, then married a doctor, Udo Ekpo, in 1938. In 1946, she was able to study abroad in Dublin Ireland, earning a diploma in domestic science, then founded a Domestic Science and Sewing Institute in Aba, a Nigerian commercial, textile and handicraft center. By 1945, her husband was frustrated by British colonial dismissive treatment of Nigerian doctors and other professionals, but as a civil servant he couldn’t go to meetings where resistance was forming against the wide-spread discriminatory policies, so Margaret Ekpo went to a political rally, and discovered she was the only woman there. By 1950, she had organized a market women’s association, unionizing  Aba market women, but soon expanded the fight to civil and economic rights for all Nigerian women; Ekpo joined the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NGNC) which was fighting for independence, and protested with others  the massacre of over 20 anti-colonial miners striking at Enugu coal mine. The NGNC nominated her to the regional House of Chiefs. In 1954, she started the Aba Township Women’s Association, making it an effective political pressure group; by 1955, women voters in a citywide election outnumbered men. After Nigeria became independent and formed the First Republic, Ekpo was elected to the Eastern Regional House of Assembly in 1961, but a military coup overthrew the First Republic in 1966, and her activism was curtailed. She lived to be 92 years old



1915 – Grace Lee Boggs, American author, feminist and social activist; American author of Chinese heritage, activist, philosopher, socialist, feminist and translator. Even with a PhD in Philosophy from Bryn Mawr, earned in 1940, she faced double prejudice as a woman of Chinese Heritage, and took a low-paying job at the University of Chicago Philosophy Library, and became involved with a Workers Party campaign for tenants’ rights, beginning her long association with the African American civil rights movement. In 1953, she married James Boggs, a black auto worker, political activist and writer, and they moved to Detroit, continuing to focus on Civil Rights and Black Power. She wrote a number of books on the 1960s and 1970s, including co-authoring with her husband Revolution and Evolution in the Twentieth Century. Lee-Boggs helped found the Detroit Asian Political Alliance in 1970, and Detroit Summer in 1992, a multicultural and intergenerational youth program. James Boggs died in 1993. She continued to write and remained active, publishing, The Next American Revolution: Sustainable Activism for the Twenty-First Century, in 2011 at the age of 95, and speaking at a forum at the University of California Los Angeles in 2012. After turning 100 in June 2015, she died four months later



1918 – Two German pilots are saved by parachutes for the first time

1920 – I.A.L. Diamond born in Romania, American screenwriter, co-author with Billy Wilder of 11 screenplays, including Love in the Afternoon, Some Like it Hot, The Apartment (1960 Oscar Winner for Best Original Screenplay and four other Academy Awards), and Irma La Douce



1932 – Anna Moffo born, American lyric-coloratura soprano, dubbed “La Bellissima, ” who performed at the Metropolitan Opera for 17 seasons, beginning in 1959

1936 – Lucille Clifton born, American author, poet and educator, Poet Laureate of Maryland (1979-1985); her work celebrates her African-American heritage and chronicles her experiences as a woman



1944 – Allied forces liberate Cherbourg, France from the Nazis in WWII

1944 – Angela King born, British leader of the environmental movement, co-founder of Common Ground with Sue Clifford and Roger Deakin, which links nature with the Arts in campaigns to encourage people to make positive investments in preserving their local environments. King was the first Friends of the Earth Wildlife Campaigner in Britain, and a consultant to the Nature Conservancy Council; co-author with Sue Clifford of England in Particular, a celebration of the distinctive character and charm of its little-known places, now being lost to corporate, political and media uniformity



1951 – Mary McAleese born, Irish Fianna Fáil/Independent politician; the second woman President of Ireland (1997-2011), and first woman to succeed another woman president, President of Ireland Mary Robinson. A pro-choice advocate and a founding member of the Campaign for Homosexual Law Reform, which caused criticism of her as a Catholic by members of the Catholic hierarchy. McAleese, a graduate in Law, was appointed in 1975 as Professor of Criminal Law, Criminology and Penology at Trinity College, Dublin. In 1987, she became Director of the Institute of Professional Legal Studies at Queen’s University, Belfast. In 1994, she was the first female Pro-Vice-Chancellor of Queen’s University. She built her political career as a member of delegations and committees rather than as an elected official. Her theme as President of Ireland was ‘Building Bridges.’ She worked for social equality and inclusion, continuing the reconciliation process. Member of the Council of Women World Leaders



1953 –Alice McDermott born, American author and academic; her novels That Night, At Weddings and Wakes, and After This were all finalists for the Pulitzer Prize. Her book Charming Billy won the 1998 National Book Award for Fiction, and a 1999 American Book Award



1953 – Korean War *: the armistice is signed, but not by President Syngman Rhee, who refused to accept the division of the country into North and South Korea

1957 – The British Medical Research Council reports smoking linked to lung cancer

1963 – Wendy Alexander born, Scottish Labour politician; Member of the Scottish Parliament from its inception, for Paisley North (1999-2011) Leader of the Scottish Labour Party (2007-2008). She served as Minister for: Enterprise, Transport and Lifelong Learning (2001-2002), Enterprise and Lifelong Learning (2000-2001), and Communities (1999-2000)



1964 – Jan & Dean release “Little Old Lady from Pasadena”

1972 – Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney found the video game company Atari

1980 – President Jimmy Carter signs legislation reviving draft registration

1985 – Route 66, which originally stretched from Chicago to Santa Monica CA, passes into legend as officials decertify it as a national highway



1995 – The first National HIV Testing Day * is initiated by HIV.gov

2007 – Gordon Brown succeeds Tony Blair as British Prime Minister

2011 – National Sunglasses Day * is launched by the Vision Council – protecting your eyes from UV exposure is always in season



2017 – National PTSD Awareness Day * is officially recognized by the U.S. Senate, marking the 1989 congressional mandate for the U.S. Department of Veterans’ Affairs National Center for PTSD; the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) also joins in this effort to raise awareness of the signs of PTSD, and what resources are available to help those who suffer from PTSD



2019 – The Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that the Trump administration could not add a citizenship question to the 2020 census. The court said that although Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross had the authority to add a question, the administration’s justification for making the change was inadequate. The limited ruling was supported by the court’s more liberal justices, along with Chief Justice John Roberts. The case was sent back to a lower court for further review, meaning the court left open the possibility that the question could be added in future years. Donald Trump tweeted his displeasure with the ruling, and said he had asked his lawyers “if they can delay the Census, no matter how long,” until the administration can re-argue its case

2019 – The family of Lauren McClusky filed a $56 million lawsuit against the University of Utah, alleging the school failed to protect their daughter who was killed in October, 2018, shot multiple times by a man she had a brief relationship with, whom she had reported to both campus police and Salt Lake City police over 20 times for harassing, threatening and stalking her. Lauren was on her cell phone with her mother Jill when her killer confronted her with a gun. Her father, Matt McClusky, immediately called the police, who found her body. Jill McClusky said the family has repeatedly asked University President Ruth V. Watkins “to take responsibility and to hold individuals accountable” for their daughter’s death. “The university has taken no responsibility for Lauren’s preventable death,” Jill McCluskey told reporters. “No one has been disciplined or held accountable in the campus police or housing . . . The university must pay a large amount so that they realize it is in their interest to believe women, and act with urgency when their female students ask for help.” Lauren McCluskey was a 21-year-old track athlete. Her mother said any money from the lawsuit would go to the Lauren McCluskey Foundation, which honors her daughter’s legacy through charity, and helps student athletes. Her killer was a 37-year-old man who had been convicted in 2004 of felony charges of enticing a minor and attempted forcible sexual abuse. On an audio recording of hearings released by the Utah Boards of Parole and Pardons, he admitted to a history of manipulating women. A review of the investigation of the killing found that University of Utah campus police did not know how to access criminal background or parole information, and had not contacted anyone who might have had information on the man. The killer shot and killed himself after police searching for him chased him into a church. In the U.S., a report from the Department of Justice estimated that 40 percent of homicides of women are carried out by men who are, or were, their intimate partners


____________________________________

About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 50 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband.
This entry was posted in History, Holidays, On This Day and tagged , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.