ON THIS DAY: July, 2, 2020

July 2nd is:

Anisette Liqueur Day

I Forgot Day

World UFO Day *

Salvation Army Founding Day *

2nd Half of the Non-Leap Year Day

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MORE! Lily Braun, Thurgood Marshall and Evelyn Lau, click

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WORLD FESTIVALS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

Azerbaijan – Police Day

Curaçao – Flag and Anthem Day

Italy – Siena: Madonna of
Provenzano veneration

Zambia – Unity Day

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On This Day in HISTORY

419 – Valentinian III born, Western Roman Emperor (425-455)

626 – Prince Li Shimin, the future Chinese Emperor Taizong of Tang, kills his rival brothers Li Yuanji and Crown Prince Li Jiancheng in an ambush at the Xuanwu Gate. Within three days, Li Shimin is installed as the new crown prince



866 – Battle of Brissarthe: a combined Breton-Viking army, led by Salomon, Duke of Brittany and Danish chieftain Hastein, defeats the united Frankish forces led by Robert the Strong when he is killed during the battle and two other Frankish leaders also die

1489 – Thomas Cranmer born, English Reformation cleric who helped build the case for annulment of Henry VIII’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon; as the first Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury, he compiled the first two editions of the Book of Common Prayer, the new liturgy for the Church of England; when the attempt to put Lady Jane Grey, Edward VI’s Protestant cousin, on the throne, Mary was proclaimed queen and restored Roman Catholicism as the state religion. Cramner is tried and condemned for treason and heresy, the Church deprives him of his archbishopric and turns him over to the secular authorities, he recants, then un-recants, and is burned at the stake


Thomas Cranmer, by Gerlach Flicke, 1545

1504 – Bogdan the One-Eyed becomes Voivode (warlord) of Moldavia

1575 – Elizabeth de Vere born, Countess of Derby; she served as a Maid of Honour to Queen Elizabeth I of England, until her marriage in 1595 to William Stanley, 6th Earl of Derby. Upon his death in 1642, she took over his position as Lord of Mann (1642-1627), the first woman to rule as the Isle of Mann’s head of state



1698 – Thomas Savery patents the first steam engine

1714 – Christoph Gluck born, German classical composer, known for his operas



1776 – In the American colonies, the Second Continental Congress adopts a resolution that “these United Colonies are, and of right, ought to be, Free and Independent States” to sever ties to Great Britain; the Declaration will be formally ratified on July 4th

1777 – Vermont becomes the first American colony to abolish slavery

1816 – The French frigate Méduse struck the Bank of Arguin and 151 people on board had to be evacuated on an improvised raft, a case immortalized by Géricault’s painting The Raft of the Medusa


La Balsa de la Medusa by Jean Louis Géricault 1818 (Louvre)

1825 – Richard Henry Stoddard born, American critic and poet; worked as a blacksmith, then Nathaniel Hawthorne helped secure his appointment as inspector of customs of the Port of New York; later worked as a New York City librarian and literary reviewer for the New York World; several of his poems became song lyrics



1839 – Twenty miles off the coast of Cuba, 53 rebelling African slaves led by Joseph Cinqué take over the slave ship Amistad

1865 – Lily Braun born as Amalie von Kretschmann, German feminist writer, journalist and a leader of the German feminists who believed in more gradual societal change. Braun was a member of the Social Democratic Party. She worked for the feminist newspaper Die Frauenbewegung (The Women’s Movement); advocate for women’s economic freedom and for replacing traditional and legal marriage with new types of personal relationships



1865 – Salvation Army Founding Day * – William and Catherine Booth found the Salvation Army

1876 – Harriet Brooks born, the first Canadian woman nuclear physicist, noted for her research on nuclear transmutations and radioactivity. She was one of the first people to discover radon, and did pioneering work in determining its atomic mass. She entered McGill University in 1894, shortly after McGill’s first women students graduated in 1888 with Bachelor of Arts degrees, but she was ineligible for a scholarship her first two years because she was a woman. Brooks graduated with first-class honours, and a B.A. in mathematics and natural philosophy in 1898. She went on to be the first woman to earn a master’s degree, in electromagnetism, from McGill. Her series of experiments to determine the nature of the radioactive emissions from thorium became one of the foundations for the development of nuclear science. In 1905, she accepted a position on the faculty of Barnard College in the U.S. In 1906, she became engaged, but broke it off when the college trustees insisted, over her objections and those of Margaret Maltby, head of the Barnard physics department, that a married woman could not remain on the faculty. She met Marie Curie later that year, and went to work as a member of Curie’s staff at the Institut du Radium in Paris. Though none of her research was published under her name, she was cited in articles published under the aegis of the Curie Institute. In 1907, she married McGill physics instructor Frank Pitcher, and ended both her career in physics and as an academic. She died in 1933 at the age of 57, of a ‘blood disorder’ – probably leukaemia caused by radiation exposure. The New York Times published her obituary, crediting her as the “discoverer of the recoil of a radioactive atom.”



1877 – Hermann Hesse born, German novelist and poet; 1946 Nobel Prize for Literature



1879 – Genevieve Cline born, American lawyer and judge, first woman named to the federal judiciary, advocate for consumer protection, women’s rights and suffrage



1881 – President James A. Garfield is shot twice by Charles J. Guiteau at the Washington railroad station; the President’s wounds are probed by multiple doctors with unsterilized fingers and instruments, but they fail to find the bullet lodged in the more serious wound in his abdomen. Continual contact with unclean hands and instruments causes massive infection, then pneumonia; he dies after much suffering on September 19, and V.P. Chester A. Arthur is sworn in as the 21st U.S. President



1890 – U.S. Congress passes the Sherman Antitrust Act

1896 – Lydia Mei born, Estonian painter, known for watercolors and still-life paintings


Lydia Mei paintings: Woman with a Cigarette, and Still Life

1898 – Hugh Dryden born, American physicist; NASA deputy administrator (1958-65)

1900 – Sibelius’ Finlandia premieres in Helsinki



1900 – Sophie Harris born, English theatre set and costume designer, a co-founder of the Motley Theatre Design Group, which frequently worked on productions for John Gielgud, director Michel Saint-Denis (founder of the London Theatre Studio), and Lawrence Olivier, as well as the Sadler’s Wells Theatre, English National Opera and Royal Court Theatre; Harris also designed costumes for films, including  A Taste of Honey, The Innocents, The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner, and This Sporting Life


The Innocents – sketch of evening dress for Deborah Kerr, by Sophie Harris

1900 – Sir Tyrone Guthrie born, English theatre director; leader in the revival of interest in traditional theatre, especially Shakespeare; directed productions at the Old Vic, Sadler’s Wells, and the first season of the Shakespeare Festival at Stratford, Ontario, in Canada; Tyrone Guthrie Theatre in Minneapolis MN named in his honor



1902 – Germaine Thyssens-Valentin born, Dutch classical pianist, received her training and spent much of her life in France; she made her debut at the age of eight. After a long absence from performing while she raised her five children, she made a notable series of recordings of works by Gabriel Fauré, who had been her teacher and mentor at the Conservatoire de Paris 

1908 – Thurgood Marshall born, American civil rights activist and first African-American Supreme Court Justice



1916 – Zélia Gattai born, Brazilian photographer, memoirist, author of novels and children’s books; member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters; honored with the 1980 Prêmio Dante Alighieri (Dante Alighieri Award)



1918 – Frances Reed Elliot becomes the first African American woman accepted into the American Red Cross Nursing Service



1918 – Indumati Bhattacharya born, Indian Politician; elected to the Lok Sabha (India’s lower house of Parliament) representing Hooghly, West Bengal (1984-1989)

1919 – Jean Craighead George born, American author; books for children and young adults; Newbery Award; also wrote non-fiction guides to cooking with wild foods



1923 – Wisława Szymborska, Polish poet, essayist and translator; won the 1996 Nobel Prize in Literature, the 1995 Herder Prize, and the 1991 Goethe Prize; called the woman “who mixed elegance of language with the fury of Beethoven”



1925 – Medgar Evers born, African-American civil rights leader; assassinated in 1963



1925 – Patrice Lumumba born, Congolese independence leader and prime minister



1928 – British Parliament accepts woman suffrage

1932 – NY Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt becomes the Democratic candidate for U.S. president at their convention in Chicago

1937 – Amelia Earhart’s plane goes missing

1941 – Noel Coward’s Blithe Spirit premieres in London


Rehearsal for 1955 CBS-TV Blithe Spirit production –
L to R: Lauren Bacall, Mildred Natwick, Noel Coward and Claudette Colbert

1943 – Ivi Eenmaa born, Estonian librarian and politician; head of the Estonian National Library (1993-1997); the first woman mayor of Tallinn (1997-1999); mayor of  Võru (2005-2007); elected to the Riigikogu (Estonian Parliament) in 2007



1947 – World UFO Day *- An object that the Army Air Force later said was a weather balloon crashes near Roswell, New Mexico, but many speculate it is an alien spacecraft

1947 – Ann Taylor born, Baroness Taylor of Bolton, British Labour politician; Lord Temporal Member of the House of Lords since 2005; Minister of State for International Defence and Security (2008-2010); Minister of State for Defence Equipment and Support (2007-2008); Chief Whip of the House of Commons, Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury (1998-2001); Leader of the House of Commons, Lord President of the Council (1997-1998); Member of Parliament (1974-2005)

1950 – Dame Lynne Brindley born, Master of Pembroke College, Oxford, since 2013; first woman Chief Executive of the British Library, the UK’s national library (2000-2012); Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts



1951 –Sylvia Rivera born, American gay liberation and transgender rights activist of Venezuelan-Puerto Rican heritage; member of the Gay Activists Alliance, and co-founder with Marsha P. Johnson of the Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries (STAR), a group dedicated to helping homeless gay youth, trans women, drag queens, and later AIDS patients who lost their homes.  She struggled with substance abuse, and sometimes lived on the streets herself, especially after Marsha Johnson’s body was found floating in the Hudson River in 1992, ruled a suicide by police, but believed by Rivera and others to be a murder. Rivera died in 2002 from liver cancer.



1958 – Elvis Presley records “Don’t Be Cruel”

1960 – Maria Lourdes Sereno born, Filipina lawyer and judge; appointed by Benigno Aquino III as de facto Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines (2012-2018), the first woman and second youngest person to head the judiciary. She was removed from office in an 8-6 decision over a quo warranto petition (demand for one to show one’s right to authority) voiding her appointment in 2018, believed to be politically motivated as she has been a critic of Rodrigo Duterte, president of the Philippines since 2016



1964 – President Lyndon Johnson signs Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act into law

1971 – Evelyn Lau born to Chinese-Canadian parents from Hong Kong, Canadian poet and writer; her parents demanded she study to become a doctor, she felt the pressure was unbearable, ran away from home, and was homeless for over two years, which she chronicled in Runaway: Diary of a Street Kid; she has since published short stories and essays, six collections of poetry, and a novel, Other Women



1976 – In Furman v. Georgia, U.S. Supreme Court rules that the death penalty systems currently in place are unconstitutional, violating the Eighth Amendment’s prohibition on “cruel and unusual” punishments, because there are no rational, objective standards for determining use of the death penalty. The ruling is that death penalty itself is not unconstitutional, but the random way it is applied that is cruel and unusual. A temporary ban of the death penalty goes into effect in the U. S., and 35 states change their death penalty criteria to comply with the Court’s ruling

1979 – U.S. Mint releases an ill-conceived dollar coin meant to honor Susan B. Anthony


Undersized Anthony dollar on left

1982 – The South African Parliament passes the Internal Security Act, giving the apartheid government broad powers to ban or restrict organizations, publications, people and public gatherings, and to detain people without trial

1990 – The Italian Catholic Church tries to halt Madonna’s concert in Rome, alleging she uses crucifixes and sacred symbols inappropriately

2000 – Vicente Fox Quesada is elected the first President of México from an opposition party, the Partido Acción Nacional, after more than 70 years of continuous rule by the Partido Revolucionario Institucional.



2003 – President George W. Bush incites attacks on American troops in Iraq, saying to the enemy “bring them on,” while promising to deal harshly with attackers

2007 – President George W. Bush commutes the 2.5 year prison sentence of former V.P. national security adviser Lewis “Scooter” Libby, convicted of two counts of perjury, and one count each of obstruction of justice, and making a false statement to federal investigators, in the CIA Scandal over the leak of CIA officer Valerie Plame Wilson’s covert identity; Libby paid a penalty of $250,400.00, spent two years under supervised release, and performed 400 hours of community service; he was disbarred from practicing law, but successfully petitioned for reinstatement in 2016

2013 – The International Astronomical Union names Pluto’s fourth and fifth moons Kerberos and Styx



2016 – China completed the Five Hundred Meter Aperture Spherical Telescope, the world’s largest radio telescope, clocking in at the size of 30 soccer fields. With the final piece of the structure in place, the telescope will be used to search for extraterrestrial life and further China’s space exploration ambitions. Construction on the telescope began in 2011, and more than 9,000 nearby residents were uprooted from the area to facilitate the project. They were compensated about $1,800 each for the loss of their homes.



2019 – Investigators for the Department of Homeland Security’s Inspector General found extreme overcrowding and unsanitary conditions in the Rio Grande Valley migrant holding facilities, with some children lacking access to showers and sleeping on concrete floors. The investigators published the report to serve as a departmental “management alert.” A senior manager at one facility said the conditions had created a “ticking time bomb.” Some of the detained immigrants banged on cell windows when they spotted the investigators. One migrant pressed a note to the window, saying: “Help. 40 Day Here.” The report on conditions in the Rio Grande Valley said that most single adult detainees, even those held for a month, “had not had a shower in CBP custody.” 



2019 – British-based media and newspaper company, Guardian News & Media, issued a report that the company’s gender pay gap, calculated by median hourly pay, has fallen from 8.4% in 2018 to 4.9% in 2019. On a mean basis – which takes the total paid to each gender and divides it by the number of employees of that gender – the GNM pay gap is 11%, down from 11.7% last year. But among those who received bonuses, the median gap was 2.8% – widening from a zero gap last year. But the gap narrowed on a mean basis to 27.5% from 34.2% in 2018. The top half of the organisation is now 41% female, compared with 36% in 2017, but 63% of staff within the lowest-paid quartile were women, up from 61% in 2018. GNM has said it is aiming to achieve a 50:50 gender balance in the top half of the organisation by 2022. GNM is publishing the data under the government’s compulsory gender pay gap initiative, which was introduced in 2017 and requires all private and public sector organisations and charities with more than 250 employees to submit annual figures

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About wordcloud9

Nona Blyth Cloud has lived and worked in the Los Angeles area for the past 50 years, spending much of that time commuting on the 405 Freeway. After Hollywood failed to appreciate her genius for acting and directing, she began a second career managing non-profits, from which she has retired. Nona has now resumed writing whatever comes into her head, instead of reports and pleas for funding. She lives in a small house overrun by books with her wonderful husband.
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